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Just as a landmark cannabidiol lawsuit headed to court this week, police in Tennessee carried out the largest known CBD raids in history: 23 businesses were closed and 21 individuals were cited for selling illegal marijuana products.
The raids, largely at tobacco shops selling candies and vape pens containing CBD, happened outside Nashville.
The raids didn’t sweep up any producers or processors, but they put the fledgling hemp industry in Tennessee on notice.
Like other states, Tennessee allows hemp growing and CBD production and has a small but thriving extraction industry.
But CBD possession in the Volunteer State is limited to those with certain medical conditions.
“You bet this is going to spark a few bills” in the state legislature, said Harold Jarboe, a Tennessee hemp grower who wasn’t affected by the raids.
“Tennessee has one of those ‘wink-wink, nudge-nudge’ CBD laws, so hopefully this will change that.”
Until CBD’s legal status is clarified, Jarboe said, the hemp industry needs to avoid looking like it’s trying to appeal to children and maybe avoid even using the letters C-B-D.
“We’re trying to make a health product, so we don’t do vapes, we don’t do candy,” Jarboe said. “We call it ‘hemp extract.’ It saves a lot of headaches.”Quote
January 24, 2018
ATTORNEY GENERAL OPINION NO. 2018- 5
Stephen M. Howe, District Attorney
Johnson County District Attorney's Office
100 N. Kansas
Olathe, KS 66061
Michael F. Kagay, District Attorney
Shawnee County District Attorney’s Office
200 SE 7th Street, Room 214
Topeka, KS 66603
Re: Crimes and Punishments—Crimes Involving Controlled Substances—Unlawful
Possession of Controlled Substances; Cannabidiol
Public Health—Controlled Substances—Uniform Controlled Substances Act—
Substances Included in Schedule I; Cannabidiol
Synopsis: Under Kansas law, it is unlawful to possess or sell products or substances
containing any amount of cannabidiol. It also is unlawful to possess or sell
products or substances containing any amount of tetrahydrocannabinol. Cited
herein: K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5701; 21-5706; 65-4101; 65-4105, 65-4107, 65-
4109, 65-4111, 65-4113.
* * *
Dear Mr. Howe and Mr. Kagay:
As District Attorneys for Johnson County and Shawnee County, respectively, you request our
opinion on whether cannabidiol (also known as CBD) oil that does not contain
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is legal to possess and/or sell in Kansas. While there is no standardized definition for “CBD oil,” we construe the term to mean oil containing cannabidiol.
You also ask if there is a threshold for THC content that would make a product legal to possess
and/or sell in Kansas. For the reasons described below, we believe it is unlawful to possess or
sell products or substances containing any amount of cannabidiol. It also is unlawful to possess
or sell products or substances containing any amount of THC.
We believe some general background will be helpful to the understanding of the issues.
The cannabis plant has approximately 109 cannabinoids.1 Cannabinoids2 are most abundant
in the flowering tops, resin, and leaves of the cannabis plant.3 Further, “cannabinoids are not
found in parts of the cannabis plant that are excluded from the [federal Controlled Substances
4 definition of marijuana, except for trace amounts (typically, only parts per million) that may
be found where small quantities of resin adhere to the surface of seeds and mature stalk.”5
Cannabinoids may come in different forms for administration. Marijuana leaves may be smoked
as a cigarette or in a pipe. Hashish consists of the dried and compressed cannabinoid-rich
resinous material of the cannabis plant. Hash oil is produced by solvent extraction of the
cannabinoids from the cannabis plant material.6
Finally, the Kansas Uniform Controlled Substances Act7 (KUCSA) classifies controlled
substances into five Schedules.8 Schedule I drugs are substances that currently have no
accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, have a high potential for abuse, and lack accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.
1 Mariotti, K.C., et al., Seized Cannabis Seeds Cultivated in Greenhouse: A Chemical Study by Gas
Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Analysis, 56 Science & Justice, 35-41 (January 2016). 2 “Cannabinoid: any of various chemical constituents (such as THC or cannabinol) of cannabis or marijuana.”
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cannabinoid; accessed on December 26, 2017.
3 DEA Diversion Control Division, Clarification of the New Drug Code 7350 for Marijuana Extract,
https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/marijuana/m_extract_7350.html; accessed December 10, 2017,
citing H. Mölleken and H. Hussman, Cannabinoid in Seed Extracts of Cannabis Sativa Cultivars, J. Int. Hemp Assoc.
4(2), pages 73-79 (1997).
4 The federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) definition of marihuana [sic] and the Kansas Uniform Controlled
Substances Act definition are similar. The CSA states, “The term ‘marihuana’ means all parts of the plant Cannabis
sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every
compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Such term does
not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of
such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except
the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of
germination.” 21 U.S.C. §802(16).
5 DEA Diversion Control Division, Clarification of the New Drug Code 7350 for Marijuana Extract,
https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/marijuana/m_extract_7350.html; accessed December 10, 2017,
citing H. Mölleken and H. Hussman, Cannabinoid in Seed Extracts of Cannabis Sativa Cultivars, J. Int. Hemp Assoc.
4(2), pages 73-79 (1997); See also, S. Ross et al., GC-MS Analysis of the Total Δ9-THC Content of Both Drug- and
Fiber-Type Cannabis Seeds, 24 J. Anal. Toxic. 715-717 (2000). 6 81 Federal Register 53688, 52699 (August 12, 2016) (Denial of Petition To Initiate Proceedings To Reschedule
Marijuana). 7 K.S.A. 65-4101 et seq. 8 See K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4105, 65-4107, 65-4109, 65-4111, and 65-4113; See also, 21 USC § 812.
9 Marijuana and its cannabinoid components are Schedule I drugs.10
Under the KUCSA, “marijuana” is defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4101(aa) as:
[A]ll parts of all varieties of the plant Cannabis whether growing or not, the seeds
thereof, the resin extracted from any part of the plant and every compound,
manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of the plant, its seeds or resin.
It does not include: (1) The mature stalks of the plant, fiber produced from the
stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant, any other compound,
manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of the mature stalks, except
the resin extracted therefrom, fiber, oil or cake or the sterilized seed of the plant
which is incapable of germination; or (2) any substance listed in schedules II
through V of the uniform controlled substances act.11
The definition of marijuana under the Kansas Criminal Code in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5701(j) is
identical to the above definition under the KUCSA.
By reading the plain words used by the Legislature, under the identical definitions in K.S.A. 2017
Supp. 65-4101(aa) and K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5701(j), marijuana is anything derived from any
variety of the cannabis plant that is not excluded by definition, or excluded because it is a
substance listed in schedule II through V. Thus, the first step is to determine if cannabidiol fits
within the general definition of marijuana. If it does, then we will determine whether any of the
Cannabidiol is one of the identified cannabinoids unique to the cannabis plant.12 It is a chemical
compound of marijuana with a very specific chemical structure.13 Cannabidiol expression is
typically limited to the flowering tops of the cannabis plant,14 but it also may be found in the
resin and leaves of the cannabis plant.15 All of these are parts of the cannabis plant that are not
excluded from the Kansas definition of marijuana. Cannabidiol has been found in trace amounts
on seed and mature stalks where small quantities of resin adhere to the surface of seeds and
mature stalk.16 It appears to us that cannabidiol is not endogenous in the seeds and mature
stalk of the cannabis plant.
9 See 21 USC § 812.
10 K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4105(d)(17).
11 Emphasis added. 12 Mariotti, K.C., supra, footnote 1. 13 Cannabidiol is defined by its chemical name in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4111(f)(3) as 2-[(1R,6R)-3-Methyl-6-(1-
methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol. 14 Mead A., The Legal Status of Cannabis (Marijuana) and Cannabidiol (CBD) Under U.S. Law, Epilepsy & Behavior
Journal, Volume 70, Part B, pages 288-291 (May, 2017).
15 DEA, supra, footnote 5.
Our review of literature on the subject leads us to conclude that cannabidiol is derived from the
parts of the cannabis plant that are not excluded from the definition of marijuana, or is derived
from resin found on any part of the plant, and therefore fits squarely within the general definition
of marijuana. Cannabidiol is marijuana as defined by K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4101(aa) and K.S.A.
2017 Supp. 21-5701(j).
We turn to the question of whether cannabidiol fits under either exclusion found in the definition
of marijuana. We note that certain parts of the cannabis plant are excluded from the definition
because cannabinoids are not found in the excluded parts (except in the resin in trace
The first exclusion is found in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4101(aa)(1) and K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-
5701(j)(1). The parts excluded from the definition of marijuana are, 1) the mature stalks, 2) fiber
from the stalks, 3) oil or cake made from the seeds of the cannabis plant, 4) any other compound,
manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the mature stalks (except the resin
extracted from the mature stalks), fiber, oil, or cake, made from the seeds of the cannabis plant
and 5) a sterilized seed of the plant which is incapable of germination.
The general definition of marijuana and the first exclusion are mutually exclusive. Cannabidiol
is found in the non-excluded parts; therefore it falls squarely in the general definition of
marijuana. If cannabidiol is found on the seeds or stalks, it is as a result of contact with the resin
produced by the cannabis plant.18 Resin, extracted from any part of the plant, is specifically
included in the general definition of marijuana. Additionally, the Legislature included a clarifying
but arguably superfluous exception in the first exemption that resin extracted from the mature
stalks, an irrefutable part of the cannabis plant, falls within the definition of marijuana.
Because your question specifically asks about CBD oil, we will address the excluded parts
enumerated in 3 and 4, specifically. Number 3 excludes from the definition oil made from the
seeds of the cannabis plant, and number 4 excludes a compound, manufacture, salt, derivative,
mixture or preparation of the oil made from the seeds. These excluded parts seem to contradict
the general definition’s inclusion of cannabis seeds. The inclusion of cannabis seeds in the
general definition is logical because the seed is capable of germination and therefore capable
of producing a cannabis plant. Whereas, in processing the seed to extract the seed oil, the seed
is crushed and is no longer capable of germination. The product created when the seed is
crushed to extract oil could be called cannabis seed oil. Cannabis seed oil, however, does not
contain cannabidiol, except possibly in trace amounts, because cannabidiol is not found in the
cannabis seed. Cannabis seed oil is excluded from the definition of marijuana. However, if
cannabidiol is found on the seeds, it is from the resin adhering to the seeds, and resin from
excluded parts of the cannabis plant is still marijuana. Cannabis seed oil containing cannabidiol
would fall within the definition of marijuana and is unlawful to possess or sell.
Finally, if cannabidiol is found in oil produced by extraction from the cannabis plant material, the
compound falls within the general definition of marijuana as defined by K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-
17 DEA, supra, footnote 5 and 15. 18 Id.
4101(aa) and K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5701(j), and it is unlawful to possess or sell such products or substances.
The other exclusion is found in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4101(aa)(2) and K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-
5701(j)(2). This exclusion provides that any substance listed under Schedules II through V is
not included in the definition of marijuana.
In 2017, the Legislature enacted a very narrow and specific instance where cannabidiol that
does not contain THC is a Schedule IV controlled substance rather than a Schedule I controlled
19 K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4111(f)(3) prospectively makes cannabidiol a Schedule IV
drug “when comprising the sole active ingredient of a drug product approved by the United States
food and drug administration.” As of this writing, the Food and Drug Administration has not
approved such a drug product.20 Therefore, at this time, any substance containing cannabidiol
is not excluded from the definition of marijuana by K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4101(aa)(2) or K.S.A.
2017 Supp. 21-5701(j)(2).
Because neither of the exceptions apply to cannabidiol, and cannabidiol is derived from the nonexempt
parts of the cannabis plant or from the resin found on any part of the plant, it falls squarely
within the definition of marijuana. Thus, cannabidiol is a Schedule 1 drug, and the possession
and sale of any amount is prohibited under Kansas law.
21 Tetrahydrocannabinol THC is another cannabinoid unique to the cannabis plant.
The Kansas criminal laws regarding unlawful possession of controlled substances are found in
Chapter 21, Article 57 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated. K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5706(b)(7)
provides, “t shall be unlawful for any person to possess … any substance designated in K.S.A.
65-4105(h) [Schedule I], and amendments thereto.” K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4105(h)(1)
specifically lists THC as a substance included in Schedule I. We note that the criminal law does
not quantify an amount of the THC that must be possessed to make it unlawful. Indeed, case
law has held that possession of residue was sufficient to uphold a conviction for possession of
THC.23 Therefore, we conclude that it is unlawful to possess or sell products or substances
containing any amount of THC.
19 K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 65-4111(f)(3), L. 2017, Ch. 57, § 6, 2017 Senate Bill 51. The prescribing and dispensing of
any such prescription medication is regulated by the Pharmacy Practice Act in Chapter 65, Article 16 of the Kansas
Statutes. 20 See FDA News Release https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm583295.htm;
accessed on December 10, 2017.
21 K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5706(b)(3).
22 Mariotti, K.C., supra, footnote 1 and 12.
23 See State v. Delarosa, 48 Kan. App. 2d 253, 257 (2012).
Stephen M. Howe and Michael F. Kagay
Kansas Attorney General
/s/Athena E. Andaya
Athena E. Andaya
Deputy Attorney General
By Alicia Wallace, The Cannabist Staff
The fate of a federal rule viewed by hemp advocates as an existential threat to their emerging industry is now in the hands of a three-judge panel.
The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco heard oral arguments Thursday in the Hemp Industries Association’s petition challenging the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s January 2017 rule creating a Controlled Substances Code Number for “marihuana extracts.”
DEA officials claim the rule is administrative in nature and helps the agency better track research and meet international drug treaty requirements.
Attorneys for a hemp industry trade association and hemp businesses argue that the DEA conflated the terms “marijuana” and “cannabis,” ultimately creating a rule that can be interpreted as scheduling cannabis and cannabinoids as illegal substances. They blame the rule for a rash of seizures of cannabidiol products.
The DEA’s rule epitomizes “government overreach” and stands in opposition to intervening legislation, Robert Hoban, a Denver-based attorney representing the hemp industry, told the 9th Circuit Court judges.
“There was a seismic shift in United States cannabis policy in 2014 with the enactment of the Farm Bill, specifically Section 7606, involving industrial hemp,” said Hoban, a principal of Hoban Law Group. “And that seems to have created some confusion, perhaps, with the Drug Enforcement Administration.”
Hoban claimed that confusion extended to other federal, state and local enforcement agencies, which have since seized products such as hemp-derived, CBD-rich extracts.
“We’ve seen this drug code utilized week after week since it’s enactment to seize, to cause criminal enforcement against lawful operators who require no DEA registration,” Hoban said.
Sarah Carroll, an attorney for the U.S. Department of Justice, countered that the language of the rule, follow-up guidance and court briefings expressly state that the code number applies only to the controlled parts of the cannabis plant that are within the Controlled Substances Act definition of marijuana.
“It does not apply at all to the parts that Congress exempted,” she said.
If other enforcement agencies acted out of step with DEA-issued rules and guidance, the “remedy would be to challenge that seizure,” she said.
The judges will review the arguments and briefs filed in the case, which include an amicus brief filed last month by 28 members of Congress. It could be months before an opinion is released, Hoban Law Group attorneys have said.
Hemp Industries Association et al v. Drug Enforcement Administration
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BUSTED: Forfeiture Laws Encourage Policing For Profit
By Charmie Gholson
Published Fall 2010
The Midwest Cultivator
Ed Boyke, a former General Motors employee who served in the Navy, became disabled in 1996 after undergoing two brain surgeries due to a tumor and epilepsy.
Boyke was approved for medical marijuana due to severe sciatica due to a pinched nerve. He was diagnosed by the Mayo clinic in Minnesota and is caregiver for himself and for one additional patient.
On April 15, Boyke stepped outside of his Saginaw Township home and was surrounded by Saginaw County Sheriff’s deputies and U.S. DEA Agents. With weapons drawn, they served Boyke with a federal warrant to search his residence, based on confidential information that he had violated marijuana laws. They handcuffed Boyke while they executed the warrant.
The DEA agents surveyed his home, said they wouldn’t pursue the case and left. The Saginaw County sheriffs department stayed to “see if he’d broken any state laws,” and according to Boyke, “started tearing the place apart.” They smashed his grow operation and a humidifier, dumped out dresser drawers and emptied closets in two rooms. They taunted him about who he voted for in the last presidential election.
When the officers left, they took with them: two lawn mowers, a leaf blower, an air compressor and generator from his garage, his 2008 Chevy Impala, $62 from his wallet, his marijuana plants, hunting rifles and ammo, his harvested marijuana, Boyke’s medical marijuana card and paperwork, a generator, a paint sprayer, a dehumidifier, growing apparatuses, scales and a 42-inch Panasonic TV. “They asked me for the key to my girlfriend’s car too, but I didn’t have it,” he says. “They told me I was lucky ‘cause they would have taken that too.”
The deputies returned the next day and asked Boyke how much money he had.
“When they came back the next day threatening to take a lien on my house,” Boyke recalls, “I called this one lawyer, Tom Frank in Saginaw and asked him about the $5,000 they wanted from me. He said, ‘I’ll run over and talk to them.’”
Frank didn’t call him Boyke back; instead the detectives called and asked if he had the money. “I was worried because they were threatening to take my house,” he says. “That Sheriff said ‘Make sure it’s cash, then we’ll bring your stuff back.’”
Boyke gave them $5,000 in cash, and they returned his car, the lawn mowers, leaf blower and air compressor but they didn’t return his TV or rifles. He says everything except the car was old junk from the garage. One of the rifles, however, was a present and heirloom. Boyke’s wife passed away at the age of 36 and the rifle had been a gift from her father. He says he pleaded with the department to return, “ just that rifle, but they told me, ‘your guns are gone.’”
“They didn’t give me a receipt,” he says. “I had to go down and get that myself.” The receipt is for storage and impound charges.
Michigan forfeiture laws require contesting property owners to file a claim with the county clerk within 20 days of a seizure, a copy of the claim with the prosecutor’s office, and pay a bond, ranging between $250 and $5,000, which is reimbursed if they appear in court. When Boyke learned this, and after reading in the paper that he had received legal advice prior to paying his “impound and storage” charges, he was furious. He hadn’t received legal advice. He drove to Franks' office.
“Frank told me he didn’t tell the sheriff he was my lawyer,” Boyke says, “but Frank could have told me I had twenty days, the detectives could have told me, I would have disputed it, but they didn’t tell me bunny muffin. I don’t know those laws, I’m not a lawyer, and that lawyer never called me back.”
Saginaw County Sheriff’s Detective Sgt. Randy F. Pfau told the Saginaw times that no one forced Boyke to pay for the return of the items. Property owners “have every right to take it to a formal hearing with a judge,” Pfau said. “By coming in and paying that $5,000, he’s waiving that right.”
Saginaw County Sheriff William L Federspiel says medical marijuana users are not his department’s targets. “I wish we could just say, ‘Hey, this guy’s got a card, don’t even bother with it,’ but unfortunately we don’t have that option,” Federspiel told The Saginaw News. “So we follow through, because you know what, it’s still against the law, unless you have the medical marijuana card.”
But Boyke did have a medical marijuana and caregiver card, until police confiscated it during the raid.
Pfau also said it is department protocol for deputies to destroy or seize all marijuana-growing related items when they perform a search or seizure at a suspected grow operation.
Federspiel maintains the department’s investigation indicated Boyke was in violation of the law, illegally possessed marijuana and was thereby subject to forfeiture law. To date, however, Boyke has not been charged with any crime. According to Michigan state forfeiture laws, he may never be.
GUILTY UNTIL PROVEN INNOCENT
Michigan’s civil asset forfeiture laws are some of the most egregious in the country. In March 2010, The Institute for Justice released Policing for Proﬁt: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture, the most comprehensive national study to examine the use and abuse of civil asset forfeiture, and the ﬁrst study to grade the civil forfeiture laws in all 50 states and the federal government. Only three states receive a B or better. Michigan received the lowest score possible: D-.
Americans are supposed to be innocent until proven guilty, but civil forfeiture turns that principle on its head. With civil forfeiture, your property is guilty until you prove it innocent.
The report chronicles how state and federal laws leave innocent property owners vulnerable to forfeiture abuse. These laws encourage law enforcement to take property to boost their budgets. The report finds that by giving law enforcement a direct financial stake in forfeiture efforts, most state and federal laws encourage policing for profit, not justice.
In Michigan, law enforcement receives all proceeds of civil forfeiture to enhance law enforcement efforts, creating an incentive to pursue forfeiture more vigorously than combating other criminal activity. The report says Michigan multi-jurisdictional task forces work extensively with district attorneys and police departments to forfeit property, resulting in more than $149 million in total forfeiture revenue from 2001 to 2008.
Americans accused of using drugs also have much to fear from informants, such as the “concerned citizen” that tipped police to Ed Boyke’s “illegal activity.” Asset forfeiture laws allow police to seize money and property from anyone merely accused of drug activity.
In 2007, Saginaw Sheriffs and Prosecutors reported earning $53,797 net proceeds from their multijurisdictional drug task forces, like the ones who raided Boyke.
2008 proceeds totaled $75,598.
I’ve heard the arguments and five years ago I would have been right there with you – I mean why worry about – or goodness forgive- even consider keeping good accounting records? Why take the risk for one in keeping a “paper trail”, and two, why bother to pay taxes when your activities are federally illegal anyway? It’s not usually a good use of common sense to pay someone who tells you what you are doing is wrong, right?
That is the mindset I’m intending to help change. No one likes paying taxes. As a sole proprietor, not only do you pay federal and state income tax, but you also pay employment taxes. For the average business owner, this could top nearly 45% or more in effective tax rate.
To start, let me opinionatedly state that in no way do I support the high amount of taxes anyone has to pay. However, I do support following the law, which includes tax law (and also includes laws that States enact based on popular vote that are in the best interest of their citizens, regardless if they are contrary to federal laws). More importantly though, I support upholding business best practices, ethics, positive intentions, fairness, and fiscal responsibility.
A business-like Caregiver who does not keep good financial records or file tax returns is not following these traits as any other business owner would be expected to do. That’s okay. But now is the time to change that.
By “Business-Like Caregiver”, I am referring to licensed Caregivers who produce profit with their activities. So, for example - if soil, nutrients, water, packaging, etc. cost $100 per jar of flowers and the Caregiver charges $150 (or even $105) for producing the contents of that jar, then they are a profit seeking and “business-like Caregiver”. Any excess charged for services that does not exactly cover expenses is a profit.
So why is it time for business-like Caregivers to embrace accounting? Here are a few reasons to consider…
1) There is now an example to follow with commercially licensed businesses soon to be in Michigan. These businesses are required to keep complete and accurate financial records. If a Caregiver’s activities mimic a commercial Cultivator or Processor, even on a much smaller scale, shouldn’t their financial records do the same?
2) An individual cannot apply for a commercial license without three years of tax returns and financial information. What if in the next 3 years, you, as a business-like Caregiver, decide to jump to a commercial aspect? Or even possibly open a recreational storefront in 2019?
I work with clients now who are planning to jump to commercial status but still remain small – 100-200 plants – what if this is something that you decide to do someday as well?
3) Business best practices require good record keeping – just because growing medical marijuana is federally illegal, doesn’t mean a business-like Caregiver is exempt from following other standards. Every business owner (or business) should pay taxes. None are in any different position than another under tax law in the fact that they could consider themselves “tax exempt” (unless of course they have received tax exempt status form the IRS)!
4) Tax evasion is a federal crime too – with interest and penalties. Growing responsibly within Caregiver/Patient plant counts and following State medical marijuana laws is a great thing. Evading taxes is not.
5) It’s time to step it up, and come out of the shadows. This is my favorite reason. Things have come a long way in the medical Cannabis world. If a business-like Caregiver is following Michigan law, they have all documented records as they should, and are not looking for trouble to begin with (intentionally pushing or exceeding boundaries), then it’s time to come out of hiding. Keep accounting records online/digitally, where only you know the password, if a hard copy paper trail is out of the question. But consider the business and cultural aspect of acceptance in Michigan that is now here. A black market, and related negative stigma, does not have to exist in a world that is constantly creating itself.
6) Because we know Cannabis and corporatism never were very friendly together. Why let big business take over this landscape? – The only reason they would is because they do things “legitimately” on paper. Beat them at their game. If Cannabis is going to be in business, help make sure it is done right. Continue to advocate for betterment.
7) And finally – because accounting is like a one of a kind puzzle – telling the story piece by piece of a business in balanced numerical harmony – to help with decision making, planning, knowing financial stability, and being the supporting backbone of business operations, integrity and financial prudence. Why wouldn’t a business owner want to show that?
These are just seven reasons – but there are many more. If you are a business-like Caregiver and the points in this post hold meaning for you, please do not hesitate to reach out if you would like to discuss further. We are passionate about this industry and want to see it succeed – especially by the individuals who have helped make the foundation strong in the first place.
If you want to ease into keeping good accounting records, we created a set of tutorials to help small to medium sized business-like Caregivers learn to do their own accounting at home, in a complete, step by step format based on real life scenarios. Please visit LCSAccountingOnline.com for more information. The tutorials are written based of former growing experience and cover all common business-like Caregiver activities, plus much more.
Or, please contact us at LCSolutionsMichigan.com to speak more in-depth about accounting needs or concerns you may have.
Thank you for reading,
Kareyna L. Miller, CPA
President, LC Solutions Michigan PLLC
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If you have ever been curious about medical marijuana and done any research, then you know that one of the major compounds in the cannabis plant that is medically useful is the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol. While THC does have its medical uses, THC is psychoactive and produces the “high” that some people are familiar with when it comes to marijuana. Cannabidiol is not psychoactive, but does provide relief for millions of people around the world. Here are ten frequently asked questions about cannabidiol and the answers.
1. What is CBD?
Of the 113 known active phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD), makes up the majority – coming in at about 40% of the plant’s extract. Though it may be the most prevalent compound, it is unlike its partner compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in that cannabidiol is not psychoactive. CBD is the phytocannabinoid that stopped a seizure in its tracks on national television. It also helps to soothe pain and anxiety. Medical science is also looking at this compound as a neuroprotectant and an anti-tumoral agent.
2. What Conditions or Symptoms Can CBD Oil Relieve?
Cannabidiol is a versatile phytocannabinoid. Though it is tough to do medical research on cannabidiol because it can affect so many of the body’s pathways at once, patients with the following conditions have reported relief from cannabidiol: cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, Fibromyalgia, Osteoporosis, and various pediatric conditions. Anxiety, epileptic disorders, and psychiatric disorders are three of the top conditions medical research is using cannabidiol to treat.
3. Will CBD Show Up on a Drug Test?
Drug tests for employment are a fact of life for many Americans. However, the majority of drug tests are looking for the psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Though high-CBD strains of marijuana can contain traces of THC, if you are using CBD oils or hemp extracts, the drug screen should not pick up the trace amounts of THC. However, keep in mind that this is only the case with hemp-based products, since hemp contains very little THC, but is high in CBD.
4. Is CBD Psychoactive?
No. CBD is the most prevalent cannabinoid in the cannabis plant, but it is tetrahydrocannabinol that is the psychoactive compound. CBD compounds are mainly derived from the hemp plant, which is a high CBD strain of cannabis. There is typically very little THC in high CBD strains of the plant.
5. Can You Vape CBD?
In a word, yes! You can get high-CBD strains of marijuana buds as well as oils and extracts. So, bring out your vape pen, your mod, or your desktop vaporizer and get to it! Make sure that you are vaping the appropriate material for your machine, though. Some pen vapes and mod vapes only support the vaping of either wax, oil, or dry herb. There are some models that will support all three with a simple change of the tank, atomizer, or chamber.
6. What Forms Does CBD Come In?
The most often used format for cannabidiol is oil, which patients either smoke or vaporize. High-CBD strains of bud also exist. Other popular forms of CBD are tinctures, edibles, and topicals. Tinctures are often placed under the tongue while topicals are typically used as a balm and rubbed on the skin. Edibles, of course, are eaten.
7. Can I Buy CBD Products Online?
This is a bit of a trick question. Keep in mind that the cannabis plant – and all its extracts – including cannabidiol – are still illegal under federal law. This essentially makes shipping CBD products from state-to-state illegal. If a website is stating they will ship to any state, including non-medical states, they are not likely using the same CBD oil as medical therapy utilizes. They are likely deriving their CBD product from the hemp plant – which is legal to import and ship – but not to grow in the United States – and treating it with harsh processes to extract enough cannabidiol for their products. Currently, there are no standards set forth by the FDA about how much cannabidiol has to be in a product to claim the product is a “CBD Product.” So, purchase online at your own risk.
8. Do I Need a Medical Marijuana Card to Buy CBD?
This is another one of those yes and no answer questions. If the CBD is hemp-based, then no. However, keep in mind that the hemp plant has relatively low amounts of CBD when compared to cannabis plants. The CBD derived from the hemp plant will be several times less potent than CBD that is derived from cannabis. To purchase medical marijuana products in states where medical marijuana is legal, you do need a Medical Marijuana Card.
9. Can You Overdose on CBD?
In a word, no. Even at doses of 700mg to 1500mg per day, there was no toxicity shown for cannabidiol. There have been no known deaths reported due to overdosing on CBD or cannabis despite decades of research into the toxicity of the plant.
10. How Do I Store My CBD? What is the Shelf Life of CBD?
Depending on the form you decide to take it in – CBD should be stored appropriately. For the oil, it should be stored in a dry area away from heat. Edibles should be stored as directed and eaten before their expiration date, as with any food. The typical shelf life of cannabidiol oils and products can vary by manufacturer, so check expiration dates. However, most are good for up to 2 years.
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Regarding the Supreme Court decision in People v Hartwick and People v Tuttle, I offer the following agreement that might be used between any patient and any caregiver. Both can benefit from it under any circumstance. It costs nothing but time, ink, and paper, and offers added protection in the event you are arrested and tried for marijuana use if and when you need it. You can find the ruling in Tut/Wick here: http://courts.mi.gov...71 Opinion.pdf. Footnotes 77 and 78 lay out that this type of documentation is admissible, and even necessary, evidence in any prosecution regarding marijuana.
Please note that the agreement covers two of three necessary elements of the Affirmative Defense found in sec. 8 of the law, i.e., that you and your doctor have met and concluded a bona fide medical exam and you have been certified to use marijuana, and that patients and caregivers are engaged in medical use to treat or alleviate a patient's condition or symptoms. The third element is to adhere to the requirement that an amount not more than necessary is held in possession. I have suggested that twelve oz is an amount not more than necessary to supply a patient who uses a zip a month for a year, and would welcome any reasonable argument otherwise. To this point I have had no takers. It also intends to prevent the need to have a physician testify, which is not advised except if necessary to provide evidence at trial, saving time, trouble, and expense. Furthermore, it is best not to have any witness for the defense questioned by a prosecutor for obvious reasons. It intends to establish the required prima facie evidence of a bona fide physician patient relationship without a physician present. It will be necessary to require your physician to sign his or her proof found in the supporting documents. If not, the court ruled that the actual text of the physician statement submitted as part of the registration process might suffice. Registry cards do not. It would nonetheless be best to have both registration and this or a similar written agreement. The agreement requires notarization. Your bank provides notary services to its customers free. Many physician offices have a notary on their office staff, and all attorneys have a notary on board. It is admissible under the Michigan Rules of Evidence as self authenticating notarized evidence (MRE Rule 902 (8)) and self authenticating Certified Records of Regularly Conducted Activity (MRE Rule 803 (6) and MRE Rule 902 (11)).
The agreement's tenets were used in the successful defense in State v Steven Fisher (http://komornlaw.com...n-8-opinion.pdf). He was found to have possessed a reasonable amount more than thirty pounds and in compliance with the other elements of the required defense. It is not useful to only registered patients and caregivers, but also provides what the courts require as prima facie evidence in non registered sec. 8 defenses. Any patient or other person, registered or unregistered, can qualify as a caregiver under the definition found in the law (sec. 3(k)) to any patient, registered or unregistered, with or without connection through the registry per the definitions found in sec. 3 of the MMA. There are no limits in sec. 8 to the number of patients a caregiver can provide for nor caregivers a patient can have. Police officers and informants who enter into it are not able to entrap medical users.
You will do well to ask an attorney re: any legal questions. I am not an attorney and have no professional relationship with anyone in that regard. It is my own work as informed musing if nothing else. It is not intended as legal advice. If anyone should want the added protection, something like this might be used in consultation with a trained attorney. I have no objection to anyone using it verbatim or edited. It, by itself, provides no protection from arrest and due process as sec. 4 state registration does.
Patient/Caregiver Agreement to Engage in the Medical Use of Marijuana
I,______________________________________, swear and affirm that I am a patient under the Michigan Medical Marihuana Act, MCL Initiated Law 1 of 2008.
Dr._____________________________, a physician authorized under Part 170 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.17001 to 333.17084, or an osteopathic physician under Part 175 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.17501 to 333.17556, physician license I.D. number____________________ , has stated that in the physician's professional opinion, on or about (date)___________________________, and after having completed a full assessment of the patient's medical history and current medical condition made in the course of a bona fide physician-patient relationship, that I am likely to receive therapeutic or palliative benefit from the medical use of marijuana to treat or alleviate a debilitating medical condition or symptoms associated with the debilitating medical condition (copy attached) .
I hereby designate_______________________________ as my caregiver under that law, and agree to conform to the Act in the medical use of marijuana to treat or alleviate a debilitating medical condition or symptoms associated with the debilitating medical condition
I, ______________________________________, swear and affirm that I am at least 21 years of age and have agreed to assist with the above named patient's medical use of marijuana in accordance with that law. I have not been convicted of any felony within the past 10 years and have never been convicted of a felony involving illegal drugs or a felony that is an assaultive crime as defined in section 9a of chapter X of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 770.9a.
Confidentiality: Each party agrees and undertakes that it shall not, without first obtaining the written consent of the other, disclose or make available to any person, reproduce or transmit in any manner or use (directly or indirectly) for its own benefit or the benefit of others, any Confidential Information, save and except that both parties may disclose any Confidential Information to their legal advisers and counselors for the specific purposes contemplated by this agreement. Presentment or disclosure of this information is not prohibited as required by law or in any prosecution pertaining to the medical use of marijuana.
Subscribed and sworn before me this date: ____________________________
Patient sign here: _________________________________
Subscribed and sworn before me this date: ____________________________
Caregiver sign here: ________________________________
Print Notary Name: ________________________________
Notary public, State of Michigan, County of _____________________
My commission expires ___________________
Acting in the County of ___________________
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Not sure if this is old news, but I think with more states coming on is more relevant and much more of this type of situation will occur:
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in 06/05/2009 there were 1,422 patient registration cards issued.
in 11/23/2009 there were 5,778 patient registrations issued.
in 12/11/2009 there were 6,439 patients registered
in 01/27/2010 there were 8,004 patient registrations issued.
in 04/06/2010 there were 11,835
in 05/28/2010 there were 17,362
in 07/02/2010 there were 20,548 patient registrations issued.
in 08/27/2010 there were 26,387 patients registered
in 11/24/2010 there were 43,292 patient registrations issued.
in 03/11/2011 there were 59,950 patients registered
in 05/06/2011 there were 75,521 patients registered
in 06/10/2011 there were 80,829
in 08/05/2011 there were 96,399 patient registrations issued
in 10/31/2011 there were 120,597 registered patients
in 01/31/2012 there were 131,483 registered patients
in 09/30/2012 there were 121,043 active registered qualified patients.
in 11/30/2012 there were 126,201 active registered qualified patients.
in 12/31/2012 there were 124,417 active registered qualified patients
in 01/31/2013 there were 126,739 active registered qualified patients.
in 02/28/2013 there were 131,861 active registered qualified patients.
in 04/13/2013 there were 135,267 active registered qualified patients.
in 05/31/2013 there were 128,441 active registered qualified patients.
in 12/04/2013 there were 118,368 active registered qualified patients.
( LARA fudging the numbers in 2013)
in 2013 there were a total of 129,822 active registered qualified patients 
in 09/23/2014 there were 146,811 patients (as reported by procon)
in 2014 there were 147,283 patients 
in 02/15/2015 there were 165,000 active registered qualified patients 
in 04/22/2015 there were 175,000 registered patients 
in 07/11/2015 there were 177,000 registered patients 
in 11/14/2015 there were 178,629 active, registered medical marijuana patients.
in 09/30/2015 (or jan 4 2016) there were 182,091 active registered patients according to LARA
in 6/01/2016 there were 203,889 registered medical marijuana patients 
in 9/20/2016 there were 211,000 registered medical marijuana patients 
in 10/30/2016 there were 204.018 registered medical marijuana patients 
in 10/2016 there were 218,556 registered patients 
in 10/25/2017 there were 269,553 registered patients 
in 04/29/2015 there were 150 registered minor (under 18) patients 
in 07/11/2015 there were 197 registered minor (under 18) patients 
in 11/23/2009 there were 1,753 applications denied
in 12/11/2009 there were 1,981 applications denied
in 01/27/2010 there were 2,501
in 04/06/2010 there were 3,500 applications denied
in 05/28/2010 there were 4,667
in 07/02/2010 there were 5,119 applications denied
in 08/27/2010 there were 6,650 applications denied
in 11/24/2010 there were 9,102 applications denied
in 03/11/2011 there were 12,090 applications denied
in 05/06/2011 there were 14,374 applications denied
in 06/10/2011 there were 16,266
in 08/05/2011 there were 18,783 applications denied
in 10/31/2011 there were 14,288 applications denied (did lara mean 19,288?)
in 01/31/2012 there were 22,550 applications denied
in 09/30/2012 there were 28,226 applications denied
in 11/30/2012 there were 30,250 applications denied
in 12/31/2012 there were 31,260 applications denied
in 01/31/2013 there were 32,383 applications denied
in 02/28/2013 there were 33,747 applications denied
in 05/13/2013 there were 25,788 applications denied. (i think LARA typed 25 instead of 35 here)
 most of the 2009-2013 statistics come from here :http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-27417_51869---,00.html (access it with web.archive.org to see the old archived statistics)
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In the house of the wise are stores of choice food and oil, but a foolish man devours all he has. Proverbs 21:20
Well there are a gazillion conspiracy theories out there. I must admit, I am a Christian and also believe in the Shmeta, a 7 year cycle. This Shmeta year is extraordinarily biblical, 4 blood moons, star of Bethlehem, the biblical aspects of this year goes on and on, with many events to happen in September and soon after. This is not a blog to fear monger, just informational.
I have done a lot of research over the years on this, but am just getting started on the prepping, better late than never. Start off small and when you buy groceries, get a little extra to put away. Don't put all of your eggs in one basket. You may want to consider stocking up on items for bartering. The thing I keep hearing of the most to invest in is gold and silver. Well, I don't have the cash flow for that and don't know of many that do. I am more concerned with survival over any financial investments. For those who can afford to invest in precious medals, turn that focus to food and water.
A quick word of warning when it comes to prepping. You need to keep it to yourself for 2 reasons. 1: you don't want everyone kicking in your door if the SHTF (bunny muffin hits the fan) and taking all of your resources. You can't predict the actions of a desperate and hungry person. 2: our government will put you on a list as a potential terrorist if you have a food and water supply of 7 days or more. That was from a speech given by Rand Paul and I have to believe him.
Let's get the "tough guy" things out of the way. With most preppers, the first thing that comes to mind is guns and ammo. That is on the bottom of my list, not to say it is not an important thing to have. It could be one of the most valuable. Here is my best advice.
Have a 12 gauge shotgun. I would recommend a Mossberg 590 Military Special with a bayonet lug. That is around $350 and considered the most reliable firearm in the world. Here is a link to the model bayonet I have, the M7 bayonet with the M10 sheath. http://www.sportsmansguide.com/product/index/us-spec-military-style-m7-bayonet-with-m10-style-sheath?a=1884227
I would recommend two different types of handguns. I would only choose a handgun that is concealable so you can blend in. A 357 revolver would be a good choice because it can accept 38 special and 38+P bullets along with the 357 mags. They are all common bullets and that is why I consider the 357 an all around good revolver. A decent 357 revolver cost around $500.
For a high capacity handgun, a pistol, I would have to recommend a 9mm baby Glock (G-26). It is the smallest 9mm Glock makes and accepts all 9mm clips Glock makes, including the 33 round clip. The G-26 is around $500. I like the gen 3 model the best. A downside with the Glock, you cannot use reloads. Of course extra ammo is a must, how much, well, I do not know.
If I had to choose an inexpensive assault rifle, but of quality, I would choose an AK-47. However, it can't be the cheap stamped steel version; it would have to be a higher quality with all milled parts. The price range for the AK-47 starts at about $350 and can go up to $1,000. You can easily get full metal jacket bullets rather inexpensively.
If you want an American, quality, low cost assault rifle, I would recommend a Reuger mini 14. This firearm takes the .223 bullets. The cost is around $500 and up depending on the options.
The last recommendation for a firearm, if you are looking for an elite assault rifle type of weapon, I would have to recommend this website: http://hdfirearms.com/ When it comes to firearms, it is not about how cool it looks or how expensive it is. It is how comfortable and confident you are with handling it. I have seen people at the firing range with the original Russian SKS, from the 1940s, with open sights and hitting the bull's eye without failure. It must be the authentic Russian model, not the Chinese knock off. When it comes to the AK-47 or Russian SKS, I do not recommend using American bullets. Use Russian or foreign military light armor piercing bullets, preferably Russian. Enough with the guns, not what this blog is about, just had to get that out of the way.
PREPPERS - PREPPING SKILLS
These are skills everyone should have, not because of "dooms day", but for self reliance. It is common sense to be prepared for any type of disaster. There are hundreds of different disasters that could occur from tornadoes and snowstorms to earthquakes and volcanoes. How well you are prepared can be the difference of life or death or whether or not you and your family will be made to suffer and for how long.
Prepping used to be a standard lifestyle. We have become so dependent on government, big businesses, technology, and the power companies. In the past, 90% of the populous lived in rural areas. Now it is the opposite. I can't imagine what it would be like in the city if the power were to go out for 2 weeks, especially in the northern states during the winter. If everybody had some form of investment in preparing, it would not be much of a problem. The way society is today, we need to ask; What will you do for clean water or food? We have seen the government fail; remember the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina? It would be impossible for the government to aid and protect us all if there were a big disaster. Such as, what if the New Madrid fault line were to become active like it did many years ago? I believe that was the worse documented earthquake in the US. It went off for days. The epicenter was in the part of the US where Tennessee, Kentucky, and Arkansas meet, and the effects were felt all the way to New York. The quake caused church bells to ring. It was so intense, and went on for so many days that people began to fall to their knees believing it was the wrath of God and began to repent. Do some research on the Madrid fault line, you will be shocked. For those in the west, what if the Yellowstone super volcano erupts? That could potentially take out 1/3 of the US.
It is not a matter of if; it is a matter of when a disaster happens. Currently, we are overdue for an EMP from the sun. This event has been documented as occurring every 100 to 150 years. The last time it happened, it destroyed every electronic device on earth. Even items that were not connected started smoking and burned up (telegraph equipment, etc.) If that were to occur today in America, it is estimated that up to 90% of the populous would die within 2 weeks. Our power grids are very fragile. It could take 5 to 15 years to replace depending on the amount of damage. The main elements of the power grids are very complex, made in China, and takes years to have just one made. Our power grids are not adequately protected in this country.
This will give you an idea as to how fragile the power grids are.
Our entire country is extremely fragile in many ways. We have our lowest food reserves and lowest water reserves. Clean, safe drinking water is becoming more difficult to access. not to mention a full economic collapse, we are not immune to that. We could be in the same predicament as Greece not long from now since the global currency is in the process of being changed. Surely there will be some type of financial crises. If you ask me, the economy looks worse than ever, just being masked by the petro dollar and that can only last so long.
Prepping will have different requirements for each individual or family. I will be focusing on my plan. I live in a rural area. Many people discuss "bugging out". I plan to hold down the fort. I feel that bugging out during a crisis can be dangerous for many reasons. This is not to say that for others, it may be the best choice.
WATER: That is the most difficult essential item for most to prepar for. There are many that take it to the extreme in storing water for a crisis. The average person requires 1 to 2 gallons of water per day minimum. This is only for eating and drinking.
I am fortunate when it comes to the issue of water. I have a newly installed 5" hand pump deep well that has been approved by the health department as potable (safe for drinking). My water storage is safely underground.
We are already in the beginning of a major water crisis across the entire country. At least referring to the cities and water treatment plants, not to mention the intense droughts in the west. Also, Flint, Detroit, and cities in Ohio, the water that they are receiving is not considered safe to drink and does not comply to federal laws. In other words, it is potentially poisonous dirty water. The problem is only going to get worse. Within the next 5 years it is expected that water prices will double across the nation. Here is a worthy article to read over. This article will give an idea of how serious and expensive this problem is for our nation. http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/drinking-water-systems-imperiled-by-failing-infrastructure/ar-AAeNjqY?li=AA54ur#image=1
Here is a disturbing article concerning the water supply for Flint, MI. They have been poisoning people and manipulating the test results. Expect this to be carried out across the country. Greed has taken over! http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2015/10/08/lax-water-system-oversight-manipulated-data-lead-to-public-health-crisis-in-flint-researcher-says/
Here is a video where it is taken to the extreme when it comes to water storage. Not saying that you should go to this extreme, but everyone should have an adequate supply of clean water stored. He provides many good tips. nutnfancy has a wide range of videos from firearms to food when it comes to survival.
FOOD: Food storage is not difficult, or expensive, even for someone living in an apartment. It can get expensive if you choose to purchase freeze dried goods, which can last 20 to 30 years and no refrigeration is necessary, until opened for some items. Even meat is available freeze dried. If you are fortunate enough to have the money to invest, you can get everything you need in freeze dried form here: http://shop.honeyville.com/
I for one do not have the finances to invest in freeze dried foods. I fall into the category of the mid to low expense investment. I have decided to start preparing my own dried food supply. I have invested in 2 essential tools to begin my journey. The first item is the Excalibur food dehydrator. I have the Excalibur 3920TB Food Dehydrator which is a 9 try unit with a built in timer. It has good customer reviews and was reasonably priced (through Amazon.com). Excalibur makes smaller units with just as good of ratings. The next item I have invested in is the FoodSaver V3240 Vacuum Sealing System and also the FoodSaver Kit wide-mouth jar sealer, regular sealer, and accessory hose. The FoodSaver investment cost under $150 with the jar sealing accessory kit. I highly recommend the FoodSaver equipment for all marijuana growers. From now on I will be vacuum sealing all of my jarred buds for optimum freshness and longevity.
The opportunities are endless for long term storage of food which are affordable and efficient. To start, buy dry goods in bulk, like at Sam's Club or Costco. A 50 pound bag of rice can be purchased for under $20. Check out this video where the guy stores 50 pounds of rice in canning jars.
Another example of storing dry rice for long term using mylar bags: This is part 3, and it shows how oxygen absorbers are used.
There are other methods, like mylar bags, food grade buckets, etc. I like the glass jars because rodents cannot get into them. However, as the saying says, "don't put all your eggs in one basket", it may be wise to use all methods. What if the jars get broken, from an earthquake for example?
Oxygen absorbers are also good to have on hand when preparing foods for long term storage. With certain methods, you may wish to use oxygen absorbers in addition to vacuum sealing. There are many videos on YouTube that show many different techniques of long term storage of foods. As I learn more, I will add it to my discussion.
The food dehydrator is great for long term storage of foods as well as making simple, healthy snacks for anytime. Dried fruit are transformed into simple, healthy snacks that last a long time, do not require refrigeration, and taste like candy!
Along with the food dehydrator I also purchased The Ultimate Dehydrator Cookbook by Tammy Gangloff, Steven Gangloff & September Ferguson. I plan to invest in other books for a more diverse viewpoint on dehydrating and storing food. There are some awesome recipes for "instant, just add water meals" that can be prepared utilizing dried meats and vegetables. Just imagine the space you can save, not only for long term food storage, but even for daily use!
It is time for a lifestyle change. Buy organic fruits and vegetables, no more pre-canned preservative ridden food from the grocery store. Yes, canned goods are not all bad to have around and good to stock up on by means of prepping. Most canned goods can go beyond the printed use by dates as well. Either way, I plan to change my ways to a more healthy way of life and it begins with food. In the end the equipment will have paid for itself. Buying in bulk, preparing food for long term and short term use provides less waste and can save a family well over $1,000 a year in food purchases alone.
Here are a couple of videos showcasing the use of freeze dried and dehydrated food and long term food storage.
Christy Jordan has a lot of great videos on dehydrating foods. This video is about dehydratig ground beef. You must be careful with storing any meat, it must be fat free. The fat will cause the meat to go rancid no matter how dry the meat is. Dehydrated ground beef can potentially store for 2 years or longer without refrigeration.
FUEL: I am only planning to store 10 gallons of treated gasoline. I probably should store more, but space is a concern. I don't want to put all of my reliance on gasoline or electronically operated equipment.
Heat for the colder climates. I haven't done too much research on this. Currently I burn wood for heat. I purchase a season supply of wood every spring. The wood burning stoves do not require electricity and that is a plus.
More to come as I get more involved...
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Does any one one have any experience, or knowledge of someone who can talk to me about the use of cannabis for the treatment of ADHD in children? I have read a few articles on the subject and it sounds very promising, especially since the treatment that the doctors want to give (Ritalin) is dangerous as HELL!!! Thank you
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Five years ago the State of Michigan begin accepting application under the MMMA. The program actually went into effect on the 4th, but it was a Saturday, so nothing could be done.
Lots has happened during these five years. there have been compliance, bending, side-stepping, disobeying, changes, changes, re-writing, back-stabbing, under-table dealings, and a bunch of frustrations.
The thing that has frustrated me more than anything has been the attitudes concerning attentive forms of use. I have always said that the MMMA was designed for smokers, and unfortunately the CoA has agreed with me. I say this is unfortunate because I created my edibles and topicals using oils that extracted all the essence from the leaves, stems, and flowers of the marihuana plant, not just the resin. I assumed that the process I used was the undisputed definition of "preparation thereof", as allowed by the law.
to be continued
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Cannabinoids, Ketogenic Diets, Holy Basil, and the PPAR Connection
Recently there's been a lot of talk, and even more confusion, about the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of pediatric epilepsy. The science behind the possible physiological mechanisms involved seem to have been all but entirely left out of this discussion. Though this paper is not meant to be definitive, this is an attempt by a layman to inject some science into this ongoing discussion. More importantly this is directed at all of the families that desperately need facts and suggestions, not politics and debate.
There seems to be a glaring commonality shared by a number of alternative forms of treatment being utilized in pediatric epilepsy. In the case of cannabinoids, ketogenic diets, and Tulsi (holy basil) the physiological mechanisms involved, as they relate to epilepsy, appear to exert their effects, at least in part, via PPAR pathways [1, 2, 3]. What are PPARs, and what do they have to do with epilepsy?
Epilepsy is far from fully understood, but current science may lead one to believe that mutations in genes play a larger role than previously thought . Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate the expression of genes . The physiological mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood as they relate to epilepsy. However, there appear to be a number of interesting implications.
Low levels of endogenous (naturally occurring in the body) cannabinoids that are CB1 and PPAR alpha agonists (activators) have been linked to epilepsy . PPAR agonists are believed to be regulators of brain inflammation and oxidative stress [7, 8]. Both have implications to epilepsy [9, 10]. This is in part why PPAR gamma is suspected to be a neuroprotective agent in epilepsy . PPAR alpha might be of even greater interest as it's the target of a number of novel antiepileptic drugs . PPAR alpha activation is also believed to enhance memory acquisition . So while there doesn't appear to be an entirely clear understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved, there does seem to be a number of correlations.
There's a large number of natural compounds that are PPAR agonists . These include, but aren't limited to: cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and saturated fats [15, 16]. This is one example of a commonality shared between the use of cannabinoids, ketogenic diets, and Tulsi (holy basil) in the treatment of epilepsy. They all contain PPAR agonists, and in turn modulate gene expression [1, 2, 3].
Why does this matter? Phytocannabinoids (natural plant derived cannabinoids) have many of the same pharmacological characteristics as endogenous cannabinoids, including PPAR activation [2, 16]. As this paper intends to illustrate, the reason that this might be important is that there is a large number of natural sources of PPAR agonists, some of which include cannabinoids that originate outside of the cannabis plant.
This paper won't delve into the physiological mechanisms that are suspected to be involved with ketogenic diets, in relation to epilepsy, other than to point out that it's believed to involve the activation of PPAR alpha .
Botanical extracts from cannabis can contain a variety of cannabinoids . The use of cannabinoids derived from cannabis appear to continue to prove their effectiveness in the treatment of epilepsy . Unfortunately, due to the politics surrounding cannabis, not all families currently have the legal access to the cannabinoids that they so desperately need. Until each State has recognized the therapeutic value of cannabis, and every family has legal access, it may be beneficial to attempt to identify alternative options for treatment. Though it's highly speculative, it seems worthwhile to take a look at the possible physiological mechanisms involved with cannabinoids derived from cannabis in an attempt to identify other possible alternatives. Prior to getting into possible alternatives, let's review some of the research on the primary cannabinoids in cannabis, as they relate to epilepsy.
Almost 500 compounds have been identified from cannabis . Botanical extracts from cannabis contain varying amounts and types of compounds which are primarily composed of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. As will be illustrated, many of these compounds are PPAR agonists. While we'll limit our discussion of cannabis to CBD and THC, it's worth noting that there is a large number of additional PPAR agonists present in any given cannabis plant, or botanic extract thereof [2, 16]. It is the opinion of this author, based on the research cited in this paper, that each PPAR agonist may have the ability to impact the degree of effectiveness of any given botanical extract.
CBD is currently the cannabinoid being most heavily explored in the treatment of epilepsy. One pharmacological characteristic of CBD is that it's a PPAR gamma agonist . CBD is believed to reduce neuroinflammation and promote neurogenesis via PPAR gamma .
Possibly of greater importance is that CBD suppresses fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which in turn increases the levels of an endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, a PPAR alpha and gamma dual agonist . In addition, FAAH inhibition increases N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels, both of which are PPAR alpha agonists [20, 21]. Low PEA levels in the brain have been linked to absence epilepsy and it has been suggested as a candidate for treatment . In general, PPAR alpha agonists might be of particular interest in the treatment of epilepsy as they're currently being explored as new antiepileptic drugs .
One explanation for the effectiveness of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy might be based on the fact that you're getting, one PPAR gamma, one dual PPAR alpha and gamma, and two PPAR alpha agonists, all from the pharmacological effects of one cannabinoid. Not to mention any other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids present in a botanical extracts from cannabis that may also be PPAR agonists.
Another potentially favorable pharmacological characteristic of CBD is that it's a 5HT1A-receptor (serotonin) agonist . Depression and memory deficits in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have been linked to low 5HT1A activation .
The elephant in the room as it relates to cannabis is THC. Like CBD, THC is a PPAR gamma agonist . THC is most known for its activation of CB1 receptors which are associated with some of the psychoactive effects of cannabis. It should be noted that CBD is an effective CB1 agonist blocker and is believed to mitigate the psychoactive effects of THC . However, CB1 directly activates GABAergic synaptic transmissions . Perturbing GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid) levels has implications to epilepsy; GABA agonists are known to inhibit seizures, while antagonists are known to induce seizures . This seems to indicate a potentially favorable indirect action of CB1 agonists.
These studies are but a few that seem to suggest that both CBD and THC modulate multiple physiological mechanisms that relate to epilepsy. In addition to THC and CBD there are other cannabinoids present in cannabis that it might be helpful to understand the pharmacological characteristics of. For more information see: Izzo, “Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb” .
Terpenes and Flavonoids
A large number of terpenes and flavonoids are present in cannabis . Many of the same terpenes and flavonoids present in cannabis are abundant throughout the natural world. There is a large number of terpenes and flavonoids that are PPAR agonists . In addition to acting as PPAR agonists, terpenes and flavonoids display a host of other pharmacological characteristics that it might be helpful to be aware of, if they're present in botanical extracts . As an example: d-limonene is not only a PPAR alpha agonist, but it can also increase the bioavailability of non water soluble lipids, like cannabinoids [27, 28]. Another example would be beta-myrcene, which isn't known to be a PPAR agonist, but is a sedative that has been shown to increase barbiturate sleep time . These two examples are simply meant to illustrate the relevance of terpenes and flavonoids present in cannabis, there are many others that it might be wise to consider as well.
To outline the characteristics of each individual terpene and flavonoid is beyond the scope of this paper, and has been discussed in length by others. Readers interested in learning more about the synergistic relationship between cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids are suggested to read: Russo, “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid‐terpenoid entourage effects.” .
Do they have to be from Cannabis? No. Essential oils are primarily made up of terpenes and flavonoids. There's a small group of families reporting, on Facebook, limited success with the use of Tulsi (holy basil) in the treatment of epilepsy. Let's examine one possible explanation for this.
Ocimum sanctum, or Tulsi (holy basil), has a wide variety of chemotypes. However, it's possible to find essential oils from one particular chemotype that may be of particular interest. Ocimum sanctum ct eugenol has two main constituents with implications to epilepsy. The primary constituent is eugenol. Eugenol is a PPAR gamma agonist, and is being studied for use in the treatment of epilepsy and cephalic pain . The second most prominent constituent is beta-caryophyllene. Beta-caryophyllene is not only a terpene, but it's also a cannabinoid, and a PPAR gamma agonist . The successes with holy basil, while limited in range and scope, might indicate an entire realm of natural alternatives that are currently being overlooked by and large.
There's a large number of sources for essential oils. However, most are for external use only. It would also be highly advisable to find a supplier that provides GC/MS analysis, as well as a distill date, on all of their essential oils. This can help to ensure that there is a known quantity of constituents, and that they haven't degraded. The constituents and ratios can vary significantly between batches of essential oils, and they often have two to five year shelf lives.
Caution would be advised as it's also possible that there can be allergic or otherwise adverse reactions to any and all natural compounds. Due diligence is required, and consultation with a physician prior to incorporating any new variables into a health a wellness regiment is recommended.
For comprehensive lists of natural sources of natural PPAR ligands see: Huang, “Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator‐Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome.” . Additionally: Christensen, “Identification of plant extracts with potential antidiabetic properties: effect on human peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR), adipocyte differentiation and insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake.” .
Other Legal Cannabinoids
As it was just mentioned above, natural cannabinoids have been discovered that are derived from sources other than cannabis . There appears to be a growing number of cannabinoids that continue to be identified, some of which will be highlighted here for their relevance to epilepsy.
Beta-caryophyllene, mentioned above, is found in a variety of natural sources including, but not limited to, cannabis and holy basil. Beta-caryophyllene might be of interest as it's a full CB2 agonists cannabinoid (with anti-inflammatory properties), and PPAR gamma agonist [26, 31].
There are also two lesser acknowledged (at least in the West) cannabinoids that might be equally pertinent to this discussion. Magnolia officinalis has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 2000 years . Magnolia officinalis root bark extracts contain magnolol and honokiol, both of which are cannabinoids, and PPAR agonists [35, 36, 37]. These two cannabinoids are widely available and have a growing body of research that indicate that they may have untapped potential in the treatment of epilepsy.
Magnolol is a novel lead structure for cannabinoid receptors agonists, and is a PPAR beta/delta and gamma agonist [37, 38]. One study found that magnolol inhibits epileptiform activity mediated by GABA; it was shown that 40 and 80mg/kg “significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and generalized clonic seizures, and decreased the seizure stage and mortality” . Another study found that magnolol and honokiol both enhance GABAergic neurotransmissions, and asserts that supplements that contain magnolol and honokiol might be “effective anxiolytics, sedatives, and anti-convusants” . It also stated the need for caution as possible side effects and drug interactions might be expected.
One pharmacological characteristic of Honokiol is that it's a PPAR gamma agonists . A study conducted on mice found that both honokiol and magnolol at a rate of 1 and 5mg/kg “significantly increased NMDA-induced seizure thresholds” . In a separate study Honokiol was shown to be a neuroprotectant in oral dosages of 3mg/kg which reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in mice, and “significantly increased NMDA-induced seizure thresholds” .
These studies seem to indicate that magnolol and honokiol, like other cannabinoids, have been identified as modulating multiple physiological mechanisms that relate to epilepsy. The fact that other botanical extracts of cannabinoids have a growing body of scientific (and anecdotal) data with favorable implications to epilepsy might also be seen as an indication of their potential. In addition to PPAR activation, magnolol and honokiol have many of the same pharmacological characteristics (including CB1 and CB2 activation) when compared to some of the cannabinoids derived from cannabis .
A consideration when sourcing magnolol and honokiol is that both have shelf lives of less than two years . This might draw into question the quality of the majority of US sources.
There may be other natural sources of cannabinoids worth considering as well. Readers interested in learning more about other natural cannabinoids are suggested to read: Gertsch, “Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant–do they exist?” . Additionally, diet can effect endogenous cannabinoid levels, which might also provide alternative options for treatment. See: Maccarrone, "The endocannabinoid system and its relevance for nutrition." .
All in all, it appears that many cannabinoids may exhibit antiepileptic properties, partly via the activation of PPARs, and GABAergic transmissions [18, 24, 39, 40, 41]. It appears as though some other alternative forms of epileptic treatment share a commonality in that they also involve PPAR activation [1, 3]. PPAR alpha might be of particular interest in the treatment of epilepsy . PPAR agonists are abundant throughout the natural world . It's the opinion of this author that it appears possible that there are legal inexpensive cannabinoids, and other PPAR agonists, that aren't yet fully being taken advantage of in the treatment of epilepsy. Again, caution would be advised as it's also possible that there can be allergic or otherwise adverse reactions to any and all natural compounds. Due diligence is required, and consultation with a physician prior to incorporating any new variables into a health a wellness regiment is recommended.
Note from author:
This paper has not been peer reviewed, nor is the author a licensed professional in the medical field. You're encouraged to read the cited references which are all peer reviewed, and are mostly available to read for free online via Google Scholar. You're also encouraged to share, print, or transmit this paper in anyway you see fit.
While the topic of this paper and the majority of citations relate to epilepsy, the available research in relation to phytocannabinoids and cancer is far greater. This includes legal phytocannabinoids.
1. Cullingford, Tim. "Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet." Epilepsia 49.s8 (2008): 70-72.
2. Izzo, Angelo A., et al. "Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb." Trends in pharmacological sciences 30.10 (2009): 515-527.
3. Prakash, P., and Neelu Gupta. "Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review." Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology 49.2 (2005): 125.
4. Helbig, Ingo, et al. "Navigating the channels and beyond: unravelling the genetics of the epilepsies." The Lancet Neurology 7.3 (2008): 231-245.
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8. Collino, Massimo, et al. "Modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response by PPAR-γ agonists in the hippocampus of rats exposed to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion." European journal of pharmacology 530.1 (2006): 70-80.
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11. Yu, Xin, et al. "Activation of cerebral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma exerts neuroprotection by inhibiting oxidative stress following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus." Brain research 1200 (2008): 146-158
12. Puligheddu, Monica, et al. "PPAR-Alpha Agonists as Novel Antiepileptic Drugs: Preclinical Findings." PloS one 8.5 (2013): e64541.
13. Mazzola, Carmen, et al. "Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-α nuclear receptors." Learning & Memory 16.5 (2009): 332-337.
14. Huang, Tom Hsun‐Wei, et al. "Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator‐Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome." Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology 96.1 (2005): 3-14.
15. Jump, Donald B., and Steven D. Clarke. "Regulation of gene expression by dietary fat." Annual review of nutrition 19.1 (1999): 63-90.
16. Radwan, Mohamed M., et al. "Isolation and characterization of new cannabis constituents from a high potency variety." Planta medica 74.03 (2008): P-15.
17. Amada, Naoki, et al. "Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression." PeerJ 1 (2013): e214.
18. O'sullivan, S. E. "Cannabinoids go nuclear: Evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors." British journal of pharmacology 152.5 (2007): 576-582.
19. Esposito G, et al, “Cannabidiol reduces amyloid beta-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPAR-gamma involvement,” PLOS One, 2011.
20. Schlosburg, Joel E., Steven G. Kinsey, and Aron H. Lichtman. "Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) to treat pain and inflammation." The AAPS journal 11.1 (2009): 39-44.
21. Sun, Yan, and Andy Bennett. "Cannabinoids: a new group of agonists of PPARs." PPAR research 2007 (2007).
22. Theodore, William H., et al. "Serotonin 1A receptors, depression, and memory in temporal lobe epilepsy." Epilepsia 53.1 (2012): 129-133.
23. Mechoulam, Raphael. "Cannabis—a valuable drug that deserves better treatment." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 87. No. 2. Mayo Foundation, 2012.
24. Katona, István, et al. "Distribution of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala and their role in the control of GABAergic transmission." The Journal of neuroscience 21.23 (2001): 9506-9518.
25. Treiman, David M. "GABAergic mechanisms in epilepsy." Epilepsia 42.s3 (2001): 8-12.
26. Russo, Ethan B. "Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid‐terpenoid entourage effects." British journal of pharmacology 163.7 (2011): 1344-1364.
27. Benet, Leslie Z., Vincent J. Wacher, and Reed M. Benet. "Use of essential oils to increase bioavailability of oral pharmaceutical compounds." U.S. Patent No. 5,665,386. 9 Sep. 1997.
28. Jing, Li, et al. "Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus d-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity." European journal of pharmacology 715.1 (2013): 46-55.
29. Gurgel do Vale, T., et al. "Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from< i> Lippia alba</i>(Mill.) NE Brown." Phytomedicine 9.8 (2002): 709-714.
30. Müller, M., et al. "Effect of eugenol on spreading depression and epileptiform discharges in rat neocortical and hippocampal tissues." Neuroscience 140.2 (2006): 743-751.
31. Bento, Allisson Freire, et al. "β-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPARγ pathway." The American journal of pathology 178.3 (2011): 1153-1166.
32. Christensen, Kathrine B., et al. "Identification of plant extracts with potential antidiabetic properties: effect on human peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR), adipocyte differentiation and insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake." Phytotherapy Research 23.9 (2009): 1316-1325.
33. Gertsch, Jürg, Roger G. Pertwee, and Vincenzo Di Marzo. "Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant–do they exist?." British journal of pharmacology 160.3 (2010): 523-529.
34. Yu, Hua-Hui, et al. "Genetic diversity and relationship of endangered plant< i> Magnolia officinalis</i>(Magnoliaceae) assessed with ISSR polymorphisms." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 39.2 (2011): 71-78.
35. Atanasov, Atanas G., et al. "Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1830.10 (2013): 4813-4819.
36. Rempel, Viktor, et al. "Magnolia Extract, Magnolol, and Metabolites: Activation of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors and Blockade of the Related GPR55." ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 4.1 (2012): 41-45.
37. Shih, Ching-Yu, and Tz-Chong Chou. "The antiplatelet activity of magnolol is mediated by PPAR-β/γ." Biochemical Pharmacology (2012).
38. Fuchs, Alexander, Viktor Rempel, and Christa E. Müller. "The Natural Product Magnolol as a Lead Structure for the Development of Potent Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists." PloS one 8.10 (2013): e77739.
39. Chen, C. R., et al. "Magnolol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, exerts antiepileptic effects via the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in mice." British journal of pharmacology 164.5 (2011): 1534-1546.
40. Alexeev, Mikhail, et al. "The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA< sub> A</sub> receptors." Neuropharmacology 62.8 (2012): 2507-2514.
41. Lin, Yi-Ruu, et al. "Differential inhibitory effects of honokiol and magnolol on excitatory amino acid-evoked cation signals and NMDA-induced seizures." Neuropharmacology 49.4 (2005): 542-550.
42. Cui, H. S., et al. "Protective action of honokiol, administered orally, against oxidative stress in brain of mice challenged with NMDA." Phytomedicine 14.10 (2007): 696-700.
43. Su, Ziren, et al. "Heat-induced degradation of magnolol and honokiol in supercritical fluid CO_ (2) extraction of cortex Magnolia officinalis (Houpo)." Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 37.11 (2001): 870-875.
44. Maccarrone, Mauro, et al. "The endocannabinoid system and its relevance for nutrition." Annual review of nutrition 30 (2010): 423-440.
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So every day I read more and more about dispensaries, and government this and that.. LEOs hate this law due to lack of funding stemming from Marijuana arrests..
I was theorizing this morning with a buddy of mine..
I can see it now, the Government run dispensaries will cancel out our rights to grow our own, which in turn will put a halt to the "legal home grow" That will satisfy LEO cause they will now be able to raid each suspected home that has a grow and seize all the equipment and still get to charge you with a cannabis related charge. seems to be looking up for the big guys imo..
They get to corner the MM market, and seeing as it wont be legal to grow your own anymore they know 40-60% of people have involvement in growing they have a huge new group of Marijuana users to target to hit their quota.. I'm not excited about the future at all
All this belly aching about your precious dispensaries is going to ruin everything for alot of people that just want to get by and not have to go through another fiasco run by the government the same people that have no idea wtf is good or bad.. its all about the money $$
Is it REALLLLLLY that hard to find some herb, the stuff thats been around since the beginning of freaking time?? Can't they setup a web based program that makes it easy like a click of the button kind of stuff for the real square/newbie. Kinda like buying insurance you have a site setup with CG's the new pt goes through finds your ad that fits what your looking for and move along????
Sorry my rant is out of frustration, I just have this nasty feeling that the police and suits will get their way.. and Marijuana arrests will be here to stay.. legal or not.
Attorney General Eric Holder is scheduled to speak to the American bar Association this afternoon about reducing sentences for minor drug offenders. He will also outline some encourage reducing prison populations by finding alternatives for elderly and non-violent criminals and encouraging and creating ways for federal prosecutors to sidestep minimum sentencing guidelines. Read more here
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Titles do not match descriptions, 11 proposed changes in one bill; Legislative “Swiss cheese” needs evaluation, not speedy voteBy Rick ThompsonWord is circulating in theand in Lansing that the Walsh package of anti-patient bills may be voted on in the Senate on Thursday, Dcember 6th during this year’s lame duck session of the legislature. These Bills addressing the(MMA) have been so extensively modified and widely criticized that they have little clarity and even less support remaining. Enough significant questions remain to keep these bills shelved until a more organized and popular effort can be launched during next session.Thewere a package of eightdesigned to “reign in” the MMMA. Introduced in June 2011, none of the billshave everbeen passed and in the year-and-a-half since their introduction, the need for action has fizzled and died. No community groups are calling for action against marijuana patients; the opposite is true, with voterssignaling the need for relaxed marijuana laws, not increased restrictions on the sick and injured.The Bills, now pared down to four, have been passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate Judiciary Committee. They await a vote of the Senate, and then a vote in the House affirming the Senate's changes. Any bills not approved at the end of this year are voided and must be re-introduced next year.suggest this legislation had no chance of passing during the regular session, suggesting Republican leadership intentionally reserved their consideration until after the election. The bills could be reborn next year: Republicans willin both the House and Senate in 2013, removing any need for end-of-year legislative expedience at the expense of social justice. The lame duck session isand a superficial reading of bills prior to passage is common. The Walsh bills require a more extensive read to understand the complexities- there are 11 changes to the MMA proposed in the current version of HB 4851 alone.Stone Soup Legislationcarries this official government:Health; medical marihuana;photograph on medical marihuana card; require. Amends sec. 6 of 2008 IL 1 (MCL 333.26426).(emphasis added)
HB 4834 was introduced in June of 2011. That issue, requiring photographs on medical marijuana cards, has been dropped from the current version of HB 4834 being floated in the Senate, V-2. Senators and Representatives unfamiliar with this bill, who rely on these descriptions for guidance, will be voting for a fraud. HB 4834 has been altered so many times the content is confusing to even the most intimately involved politicos. A companion bill, HB 4851, has proposed or contained more than 15 different variations on changes to the Michigan Medical Marijuana Act (see chart below). Even single issues appear on different bills. Transporting live marijuana plants in a car is allowed under HB 4834, but rules regarding transporting dried useable marijuana in a car are found in HB 4856. The passage of the Walsh bills would create more of the “Swiss cheese” that the Michigan Medical Marijuana Act is routinely compared to.
Single issue bills are completely possible- the Senate did it. The three Bills that have been passed by the Senate and are headed for a vote in the House- SBs 321, 505 and 933- are single-issue bills, easily read and understood. So are two of the four House bills, HB 4853 and HB 4856. Combined, the two controversial House bills 4851 and 4834 currently contain more than 30 proposed changes to the MMA.
Much of this confusion is the result of the legislative stone soup nature of the development of the Walsh Bills. It appears each bill was started as a single issue before various special interest groups each added their own flavor to the soupy package. "Special interest groups are lining up to push their agendas and collect political IOUs," says the Morning Sun. The Michigan State Police, the Michigan Township’s Authority, the Attorney General’s office, the Prosecuting Attorneys Association of Michigan, all contributed pieces to the end result. This is especially apparent when evaluating the additional restrictions on patients made after both HB 4851 and 4834’s initial filing (see chart below).
And there will be no time to read these convoluted pieces of legislation: reports suggest the Senate has booked themselves an early exit from duty, bowing out as early as December 13th, whereas the House may continue to conduct business until the 20th. If true, this gives the Senate only six days in session remaining in 2012 with more pressing issues left to resolve, including the NPO status of Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Right to Work, regional transportation, Emergency Managers, tax credits for fetuses, etc.“Even if these issues individually merited consideration there is simply no time to give them a thorough evaluation by legislators or a reasonable period for citizen response,” said Jamie Lowell of the 3rd Coast Compassion Center. “There are no lame ducks in the Senate. Every man and woman is going to have to own their vote and be accountable to the people in January. And the people have spoken, clearly and often, on this issue.”
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Clare County Compassion Club . ning is considering doing another BBQ. We are looking to see how many are or would be interested n Joining us? We have been getting alot of requests lately for us to have another one.So WE thought we would ask and see if anyone else would b or is interested n Joining us. We would supply the meat as allways..And everyone brings a dish to pass..This will be n a safe place....This would be for Patients/caregivers and spouses of(less someone needs someone to drive them there)..This would be held in Clare County..Please let us know if you would be interested n joining us..Thanks n advance..
I Just smoked, my desription of how I feel at this moment;
Ok so I just smoked a joint of a strain called Super Bee, a card holding friend stopped by to give it a try cause I was having some pretty bad back spams, and saw no sleep in my future.
So its been about lets say 10 minutes give or take, Once we started smoking I could instanly taste what would be desribed as earthy, with a pine flavor and smell?. Got to be around the 3rd hit and the buzz effect starting to kick in, were about 1/2 way done with the joint at this point.
I at this point start to feel my spasms in my back begin to untense up and the twitching started to go away, I still have a pretty good head buzz at this time, not to the point of "duh whats going on" I am now at the place that I have no real pain at all the effects of the head buzz have made me forget that I was in pain before we started..We have finshed the joint by this time, and I feel pretty "medicated" I seem to be thinking alot, nothing in particular just lots of things going through my head.
I don't feel any pain anymore, I know I still hurt, but I just don't feel the pain anywhere now since I smoked, pretty cool thing!. Umm what else my memory is fine all my motor skills seem to be normal no more back spasms and my anxiety has dropped immensely, still have that heavy feeling in my head, Don't quite know how to put it in words.
It has taken a while but I would label this bud a "creeper buzz" cause 10 minutes ago I was medicated its going on 20 minutes or so and the effect is much stronger. I feel great, I keep trying to desribe how I feel as it starts to effect me more and more, But all I can desribe is how I don't have any pain that I can feel at the moment? I tried laying down to fall asleep and my mind is racing still, this is normal for me when I smoke.
I would say that when the effects of the head buzz start to go away (10-20 minutes) that I will be able to shut my eyes and fall alseep cause still 30 minutes later and I'm not feeling the back twisting pinching shooting pains I felt just prior to ingesting it, and that to me is a medication that has done its job it effectively stopped my pain and kept my mind busy so much so that I forgot that I was even struggling with back spasms just a 30-45 minutes ago.
Well that was my smoke report and how this strain effected me, it helped with all the right things I needed assitance with at the time. THANK YOU CANNABIS!
I leave the reply/comments open to you all on how you are effected after you medicate, I did this so people can read and see what they may expect after they inhale cannabis for the first time, or the regular user that has a certain strain they want to share the report on.
Did You Know?
Little Known Facts in the Medical Marijuana Debate
1.Marijuana is classified as a Schedule 1 drug by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, meaning it is considered to have a "high potential for abuse," "no currently accepted medical use," and "a lack of accepted safety." Rescheduling marijuana to the less restrictive Schedule II or III (45 KB) remains a contentious issue.
2.The University of Mississippi has grown marijuana (including a placebo with virtually no THC) for US government-approved research since 1968. Each year the university grows 1.5 acres, 6.5 acres, or none, depending upon demand.
3.The first cannabis-based prescription medicine, Sativex, was launched in the United Kingdom on June 21, 2010. Sativex is a mouth spray approved to treat spasticity in patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
4.Eight of the 10 states that had legalized medical marijuana by 2006 saw a decrease in teen use of marijuana from 1999 to 2006.
5.The states with the three highest possession limits among the 16 states with legal medical marijuana are Oregon (24 plants), California (18 plants), and New Mexico (16 plants).
6.Smoked or inhaled marijuana takes only a few minutes to reach the brain, where a series of cellular reactions occur that ultimately produce the "high" feeling. When eating or drinking marijuana, this process can take up to an hour.
7.When swallowing marijuana (in teas, brownies, etc.), the main active ingredient, Delta-9-THC, is transformed by the liver into the more psychoactively powerful Delta-11-THC.
8.In 1978 the US government started the Compassionate Investigational New Drug (IND) program. Although closed for new patients in 1991, it still supplies 320-360 marijuana cigarettes monthly to each of the four seriously ill patients remaining in the program.
9.According to FDA data obtained by our filing of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request, marijuana was not reported as a primary cause of death at all between Jan. 1, 1997 to June 30, 2005 (the time for which the data were available).
10.The US Department of Justice, in an Oct. 19, 2009 memo, advised federal prosecutors not to target medical marijuana patients whose actions are in compliance with the law in states that have legalized medical marijuana.
11.Marijuana contains over 400 different identifiable chemical constituents, including steroids and Vitamin A.
12.The British Lung Foundation reported in Nov. 2002 that 3-4 marijuana cigarettes a day are as dangerous to the lungs as 20 or more tobacco cigarettes a day.
13.A UCLA study presented on May 24, 2006 found no association between marijuana and lung cancer, and it suggested that marijuana may even have "some protective effect."
14.Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Administrative Law Judge Mary Ellen Bittner ruled on Feb. 12, 2007 that "there is currently an inadequate supply of marijuana available for research purposes."
15.The 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, commissioned by the US government, recommended that under certain narrow conditions marijuana should be medically available to some patients, even though "numerous studies suggest that marijuana smoke is an important risk factor in the development of respiratory disease." Read more about the report's conclusions.
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do allot of reading and I do not remember a locality barring medical use anywhere else before in a medical cannabis State . Even Livonia's troubling actions previously banning caregiver activities did not go there . That doesn't mean it hasn't occurred but it is rare if so
. It just goes to show how discriminatory and dangerous attitudes are for patients . Already many are afraid to go to emergency rooms even at State Run Institutions like the U of M . 3 years after the act has passed I have not heard of one Hospital or Nursing home to have a vape or smoking area for patients who use this as medicine . Even the mention of it is frowned on and of course department heads are banning physicians from writing recommendations even denying medications due to program participation . Yet the AG's office does not step in to protect patient rights .
Election year politics are causing a backlash for participants and distractions from care patients just do not need . The fact is only 1% of the population uses medical cannabis and the use is spread out over the whole State . Pretty much our closed community regulates itself and market forces will downsize distribution channels overtime due to real world demand and supply constrictions . It is sad that through the Michigan Municipal League and meetings with prosecutors that have no corresponding opposition harmful attitudes have been spread to form policy against patients and caregivers . Policy that forces opposition and expensive legal actions in which the sick and dieing are at a huge disadvantage in having to go up against the war chest funding of the local Government sworn to protect and serve them . We have even seen the State send in special prosecutors to assist thus further imbalance the court proceedings .
Without the supply from the caregiver system the whole program collapses for the sickest patients even Bill Schuette recognizes eligible though he still will not recognize that any medical benefit from cannabis exists . Because when that is recognized it forces policy of opposition to change to accommodation . In every meeting with officials positive studies reinforcing medical benefits must be driven home negating any foundation for nuisance law . Further the act stipulates all other acts and parts of acts in conflict shall no longer apply ; so how are they enforcing law from the CSA on patients now by merely quoting Federal Statutes we all know conflict but the majority of voters that elected officials choose to ignore ?
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Another recipe using yet another part of this great healer that we just toss out! My last "recycle" recipe was using root balls for topical applications. The stem oil is used in recipes or taken as is.
1) grind stems or cut up into small pieces. A coffee grinder will do the job nicely
2) In slow cooker add stems and enough oil of your choice (olive, canola, coconut etc.) to thoroughly cover stems. You may need to add oil to compensate for the loss of oil due to the stems absorbing oil as they soften and cook.
3) Cook on low for 12 hours. Once you reach the 12 hour mark turn off slow cooker and let it sit for 12 hours. You will need to cook the mixture for two 12 hour cycles.
4) After second cycle of cooking cool and strain.
This mixture can be use as normal in any recipe calling for oil. Some will substitute butter for the choice of oil that is used to replace the oil loss from the stems softening and absorbing the oil as well as there are those who will make this mix with all butter. I have not found one method superior to the other. You will not get that THC high or buzz from this mixture because the stems are high in CBD, but you will get a subtle deep body relaxation and pain relief with use. If you desire the THC effect add ground buds to make a 50/50 mix and cook in the same manner.
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I'm about to move back 2 mi from Colorado.i have had my card in co for a couple years. Is it possible to transfer it in to Michigan or am I going to need to go through all the steps to get it? My medical records are also old,I never needed them in co. You would just sit in a room with a doctor and tell them your symptoms, then they would recomend if medical marijuana be the treatment best suited for you. Is it that way in Michigan or do I need to get some medical records stating my conditions? Please help me sum way I need answers.
I have five plants that are almost ready for flower and the clones are doing well. I moved my grow tent and added a humidifier as well as watering being cut back and plants are doing well. I also added protyk and it has done well not to let plants wilt. I love it. I am excited to star flowering but I am being patient so as to yield better and to not be impatient and flower bunny muffin up...
I will keep posting so that I can see what I do and track my success and failures.
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I have been absent from these boards for several months for a number of reasons, chief among them, the lack of an internet connection in my ultra-rural, northern Michigan compound. While I have been fairly isolated, I have stayed in touch with the goings-on by slipping into town under cover of darkness to periodically surf the web. I've noticed that some posts, and many news stories use words that have a different meaning from the word the author was looking for, and I will attempt to clarify the terminology regarding medical cannabis entities.
CAREGIVER (for LEO)
Section 3 of our law explains exactly what a caregiver is; "Primary caregiver" means a person who is at least 21 years old and who has agreed to assist with a patient's medical use of marihuana and who has never been convicted of a felony involving illegal drugs." Nowhere in the state definition does it say a caregiver is a dispensary like our opponents have articulated. Is this an error on their part or are caregivers really a dispensary? Caregivers do dispense medical cannabis to patients so it's easy to see how they made that leap and why the public seems to be buying it. Further, I know some caregivers who are generating more revenue than lots of small businesses. And while these arguments may be accurate, our law is clear and unequivocal about what a caregiver is, just read Section 3.
A compassion club is exactly what Greg Francisco and I envisioned them to be, a community-based support network that assists medical cannabis patients and caregivers locally. These groups were requested to meet in a public facility such as a library, to expressly provide community outreach and help newcomers find the resources they need. We never intended for these entities to become collectives or smoke clubs, we always told club hosts that they would have an upper leg at establishing a "collective" by networking through the club, but the club was always supposed to be for local outreach.
Because these lines have blurred, the media and our opponents have successfully morphed the words Compassion Club into Dispensary. We need to publically clarify this in the media so everyone including law enforcement understands the difference.
COLLECTIVE or COOPERATIVE
A collective is formed when a group of patients and caregivers strike out beyond the Compassion Club and form a separate entity. Usually registered as a not-for-profit corporation (not a 501C3), these entities are not sanctioned by the MMMA and are not Compassion Clubs. A collective is a group of people acting individually, yet sharing in the common goal of producing and distributing medical cannabis exclusively for it's members. Unlike Compassion Clubs who generally operate on zero-balance budgets and support from it's members, Collectives usually generate enough revenue to rent or buy their own space, and pay employees and taxes.
A medical cannabis dispensing collective usually operates from a storefront or clubhouse, not a public place. A collective is a form of dispensary, kinda like a credit union is a type of bank. They both do the same thing, many times the only difference is fees and customer service.
A dispensary is a storefront business that distributes medical cannabis and operates fundamentally like any for profit business. Most of these entities are not-for-profit corporations (again not 501C3), but some actually operate as traditional for-profit businesses.
Are dispensaries legal or not? Nobody knows for sure, the courts have not told us yet, but they will. Do we need dispensaries? Absolutely! If you read the definition of caregiver, it actually calls them "primary caregivers". Section 4 further states.
"A primary caregiver who has been issued and possesses a registry identification card shall not be subject to arrest, prosecution, or penalty in any manner, or denied any right or privilege, including but not limited to civil penalty or disciplinary action by a business or occupational or professional licensing board or bureau, for assisting a qualifying patient to whom he or she is connected through the department's registration process with the medical use of marihuana in accordance with this act, provided that the primary caregiver possesses an amount of marihuana that does not exceed.....".
We would all agree that "primary caregivers", the same people LEO views as dispensaries, are restricted to transferring medical cannabis only to the patients they are directly registered to. A good argument could be made that dispensaries are needed as "secondary caregivers" to ensure as our law intends in Section 8a2, "The patient and the patient's primary caregiver, if any, were collectively in possession of a quantity of marihuana that was not more than was reasonably necessary to ensure the uninterrupted availability of marihuana for the purpose of treating or alleviating the patient's serious or debilitating medical condition or symptoms of the patient's serious or debilitating medical condition....". What happens when a patient's primary caregiver drops the patient, runs out of cannabis, or has a crop failure? Dispensaries will ensure you have access to the medicine you need, when you need it.
Aside from the distrust of dispensaries prevalent on these boards (for understandable reasons), most dispensary owners are not in favor of institutionalized growing because they understand it would strip patients and caregivers of their right to cultivate their own cannabis. Some dispensary owners are mom & pop operations just like caregivers and they understand the issue, and agree with the right to grow because most are patients too. Even the large dispensaries produce as much of their own medicine as they can to meet member demand, and to help lower prices and still generate enough revenue to sustain the business.
And because they are traditional businesses in a sense, they have operating costs. The cost to operate a dispensary can be enormous when you look at the way dispensaries will be required to operate in the future. Zoning ordinances will eventually force dispensaries to adopt uniform security measures that can cost thousands to purchase and maintain. While no dispensary owner has ever disclosed to me how much inventory they have, the cost to purchase enough medical cannabis treatment options (more than just raw cannabis) to sustain a dispensary could easily run into the tens of thousands of dollars. Don't forget the lights, heat, phones, employees, taxes, advertising, promotions, and other administrative costs. Oh, I almost forgot permits and legal fees. That's why dispensaries must charge up to $30 per gram for topshelf medicine. Most also have medicine available for under $15 per gram and under $300 an ounce. While still not cheap, those prices are reasonable for a "secondary caregiver" when your regular caregiver can't or won't provide.
All patients should select a primary caregiver, even if you choose to grow your own cannabis. Making your spouse or friend a caregiver extends the protections of our program to good people who may not qualify as a patient, but who regularly come in contact with cannabis.
I hope this clears up the confusion over the composition of the different entities. As members of this community I ask that you correct people when they improperly use one of these words so the media, the public, and our opponents all understand the difference. All of us are leaders within our own circles and that requires each of us to participate in the education of the masses.
YOU GUYS GOTTA CHECK OUT WHAT EVEN SOME OF THE NATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT ARE TURNING TO. IT COULD BE ONE OF OUR GREATEST DEFENSES IN "HEMP HISTORY" (now i get they are not advocates for med-mj...but they understand that the U.S. GOV. is declairing war on the public for this medicine for personal gov. gain)...they profiteer from minor civil raids and destroy the family structure of our nation by collapsing homes across our FREE nation for minor amounts of marijuana and these days most of the seizures are legal registered users....BS!!! time to stop the COWBOYS like we did b4 and only then will the UNITED STATES CITIZENS have their rights restored...MARIJUANA is our nations future the sooner the fed gov grabs hold of that truth the sooner we move forward with peace and free ontrepanuership on a grand scale for all generations to come...THE 1st link is a horrible raid, have your man gut on this one got me, the following links are for law enforcement against prohibition..."I DO NOT CONDONE LAW ENFORCEMENT ON MANY LEVELS, IN MY EYES THEY ARE OVER-RATED GANG MEMBERS PROTECTED BY THE STATE, AS SHOULD WE BE" if the state would step in n help us like it does for the CROOKED donkey COPS out there that get away with murder and prejiduce the public just MIGHT re-gain their trust in that so called public safety force... NEVER KNOW...SO HERE YA GO...TOKE IT EASY <//////(@~~`~.~~
I ACTUALLY QUIVERED OUTA FEAR FOR MY FAMILY (even tho i use caregiver) and RAGE FOR WHAT HAPPENED TO THIS ONE...
DUMB donkey COP SHOOTS THIS KID FOR FLINCHING!!! GRR
THESE GUYS ARE NOT EVEN TRYING TO HIDE IT...THEIR LETTING US KNOW THEY WILL GO ROGUE IF THEY GOTTA...
WAKE UP AMERICA...POTS NOT THE ENEMY THE PROHABITIONISTS ARE
(the link above is actually for LEAP
also see the COWBOYS in another raid on youtube its called "Cops Kill Young Father-to-Be in Botched Marijuana Raid" this sshtuffs gotta stop
Source: Mary Jane ~Vs~ Federal Pain
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