Jump to content

Federal Government Reports Marijuana Effective In Combatting Certain Cancers


Recommended Posts

Federal Government Reports Marijuana Effective in Combatting Certain Cancers Reports ADSI

 

Original Story:

 

 

Quote:LOS ANGELES, March 12, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The following is a statement by Advocates for the Disabled and Seriously Ill:

In a recent report, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the Federal government's National Institutes of Health (NIH), stated that marijuana "inhibited the survival of both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer cell lines." The same report showed marijuana slows or stops the growth of certain lung cancer cells and suggested that marijuana may provide "risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer."

Referring to the NCI report, Patient Rights attorney Matthew Pappas said, "The Federal government's continuing attack on people prescribed medical cannabis by their doctors is hypocritical considering the benefits reported by its own National Cancer Institute." Pappas represents patients in defending their right to reasonably obtain medical marijuana. The patients contend the Federal government and various municipalities are trying to prevent them from obtaining cannabis for medical purposes in direct contravention of state laws. "Cities that ban dispensaries are denying patients the ability to obtain a medicine the Federal government's National Institutes of Health says fights cancer and they're doing it with the Obama Administration's help." Recently, the City of Los Angeles repealed its ban of medical marijuana collectives after Bill Rosendahl, a member of its city council diagnosed with cancer and prescribed medical marijuana said to fellow council members about the ban, "You want to kill me? You want to throw me under the bus?"

The NCI report also examined whether patients who smoke marijuana rather than ingesting it orally are exposed to a higher risk of lung and certain digestive system cancers. According to the government, 19 studies "failed to demonstrate statistically significant associations between marijuana inhalation and lung cancer." The report also identified a separate study of 611 lung cancer patients that showed marijuana was "not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer or other upper aerodigestive tract cancers and found no positive associations with any cancer type." In the area of prostate cancer, the NCI report was inconclusive and suggested further research was necessary. In its report, the National Cancer Institute also identified a "study of intratumoral injection of delta-9-THC in patients with recurrent glioblastoma" that showed tumor reduction in the test participants.

Despite the Federal government sanctioned and authorized NCI report, Pappas said Congress and the Obama Administration have continued to thwart marijuana research. In an announced effort to displace state medical marijuana laws, the Office of National Drug Control Policy described "medical" marijuana as a "myth" fueling "troubling misconceptions" in documents found on its website. The Federal government appears to be focused on creating more chemical drugs, many of which are the subject of various attorney television commercials seeking out those adversely impacted by those drugs. Pappas said both the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Office of National Drug Control Policy continue to assert marijuana lacks any medicinal value despite the research showing cannabis reduces certain cancer risks and inhibits the growth of tumor cells. He also commented that the Federal government's anti-marijuana position contributes to and encourages prejudice and public misconception about the legitimate use of medical cannabis as treatment for seriously ill patients.

In addition to anti-cancer properties, separate research reported marijuana appears to have "profound nerve-protective and brain-enhancing properties that could potentially treat many neurodegenerative disorders." In its report, the National Cancer Institute stated cannabis effectively treats insomnia and referenced a placebo-controlled study in cancer patients showing increased quality of sleep and relaxation in those treated with tetrahydrocannabinol, an active component in marijuana.

Responding to a White House statement that only a small percentage of patients prescribed medical cannabis under state laws use it to treat cancer, Pappas said "marijuana isn't just for cancer or AIDS patients – it can also treat, for example, sleeplessness." Although generally not a life threatening condition, Pappas referred to insomnia as a health issue regularly treated with prescription drugs zolpidem (brand name Ambien) and eszopiclone (brand name Lunesta). According to their manufacturers' websites, zolpidem and eszopiclone have been shown to cause severe side effects including aggressiveness, hallucinations, confusion, or suicidal thoughts. Pappas noted that, unlike those drugs, studies on insomnia similar to those reported by the National Cancer Institute show medical marijuana effectively treats insomnia at a far lower cost and with fewer side effects. Marijuana has also been prescribed for glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and a variety of other physical and mental conditions.

Advertise | AdChoices

 

 

Addressing the White House website statement that medical marijuana should remain criminally illegal under federal law, Pappas said that "with every drug, the doctor must consider the benefits versus any possible side effects. In its 3000-plus year history of medicinal use, there has never been a known, confirmed death caused by overdose of marijuana. To suggest that prescription drugs known to have severe negative side effects are alright and that marijuana can only be used for cancer or AIDS is nonsensical. It demonstrates how the Federal government's decision to usurp state sovereignty is harming people because burdening citizens with federal criminal records based on medical marijuana provided for under state law is simply wrong. To continue outlawing the use of a drug shown to have life-saving, anti-cancer benefits that has been used safely as a medication for thousands of years is irresponsible."

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I looked into the NCI info which have pasted below. There is no reference in studies that cannabis cures cancer in people. If there is additional information showing otherwise please post it.

 

 

Human/Clinical Studies

Cannabis Pharmacology

Cancer Risk

Cancer Treatment

Antiemetic Effect

Cannabinoids

Cannabis

Appetite Stimulation

Cannabinoids

Cannabis

Analgesia

Cannabinoids

Cannabis

Anxiety and Sleep

Cannabis

Current Clinical Trials

 

 

[/url]Cannabis Pharmacology

When Cannabis is ingested by mouth, there is a low (6%–20%) and variable oral bioavailability.[1,2] Peak plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) occur after 1 to 6 hours and remain elevated with a terminal half-life of 20 to 30 hours. Taken by mouth, delta-9-THC is initially metabolized in the liver to 11-OH-THC, a potent psychoactive metabolite. When inhaled, cannabinoids are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream with a peak concentration in 2 to 10 minutes, declining rapidly for a period of 30 minutes and with less generation of the psychoactive 11-OH metabolite.

Cannabinoids are known to interact with the hepatic .[,] In one study, 24 patients were treated with (600 , n = 12) or (180 mg, n = 12), followed 3 weeks later by the same with medicinal Cannabis taken in the form of an tea for 15 consecutive days, starting 12 days before the second treatment.[] The of Cannabis did not significantly influence exposure to and clearance of irinotecan or docetaxel, although the herbal tea route of administration may not reproduce the effects of or oral of fat- cannabinoids.

Cancer Risk

A number of studies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the risks of various cancers associated with Cannabis use.

A pooled analysis of three case-cohort studies of men in northwestern Africa (430 cases and 778 controls) showed a significantly increased risk of lung cancer among smokers who also inhaledCannabis.[]

A large retrospective cohort study of 64,855 men aged 15 to 49 years from the United States found that Cannabis use was not associated with tobacco-related cancers and a number of other common malignancies. However, the study did find that, among nonsmokers of tobacco, ever having usedCannabis was associated with an increased risk of .[]

A population-based case-control study of 611 lung cancer patients revealed that chronic low Cannabisexposure was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer or other upper cancers and found no positive associations with any cancer type (oral, , , lung, or) when adjusting for several confounders, including cigarette smoking.[]

A systematic review assessing 19 studies that evaluated or lung in persons 18 years or older who inhaled marijuana concluded that failed to demonstrate associations between marijuana inhalation and lung cancer after adjusting for tobacco use.[]

With a hypothesis that chronic marijuana use produces on the human and, the association between marijuana use and of (TGCTs) has been examined.[-] Three population-based case-control studies report an association between marijuana use and elevated risk of TGCTs, especially or mixed- tumors.[-] However, the sample sizes in these studies were inadequate to address marijuana by addressing associations with respect to recency, frequency, and duration of use. These early reports of marijuana use and TGCTs establish the need for larger, well-powered,, especially studies evaluating the role of endocannabinoid signaling and cannabinoid receptors in TGCTs.

A comprehensive Health Canada monograph on marijuana concluded that while there are many cellular and molecular studies that provide strong evidence that inhaled marijuana is carcinogenic, the epidemiologic evidence of a link between marijuana use and cancer is still .[]

Cancer Treatment

No clinical trials of Cannabis as a treatment for cancer in humans were identified in a PubMed search; however, a single small study of intratumoral injection of delta-9-THC in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme reported potential antitumoral activity.[13,14]

Antiemetic Effect

 

Cannabinoids

Despite advances in pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management, nausea and (N/V) remain distressing for cancer patients and their families. , a synthetic derivative of delta-9-THC, was approved in the United States in 1986 as an to be used in cancer. Nabilone, another derivative of delta-9-THC, was first approved in Canada in 1982 and is now also available in the United States.[] Both dronabinol and nabilone have been approved by the for the treatment of N/V associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to to conventional antiemetic . Numerous trials and meta-analyses have shown that dronabinol and nabilone are effective in the treatment of N/V induced by chemotherapy.[-] The exit_small.pngrecommend cannabinoids as breakthrough treatment for chemotherapy-related N/V.

One systematic review studied 30 randomized comparisons of delta-9-THC preparations with or other antiemetics from which data on and harm were available.[] Oral nabilone, oral dronabinol, and levonantradol (a synthetic of dronabinol) were tested. InhaledCannabis trials were not included. Among all 1,366 patients included in the review, cannabinoids were found to be more effective than the conventional antiemetics , , chlorpromazine, , , domperidone, and alizapride. Cannabinoids, however, were not more effective for patients receiving very low or very high chemotherapy. Side effects included a feeling of being high, , or drowsiness, dizziness, dysphoria or, , , and .[] Newer antiemetics (e.g., 5-HT3 receptor antagonists) have not been directly compared with Cannabis or cannabinoids in cancer patients.

Another analysis of 15 compared nabilone with placebo or available antiemetic drugs.[] Among 600 cancer patients, nabilone was found to be superior to prochlorperazine, domperidone, and alizapride, with nabilone favored for continuous use.

(Refer to the Cannabis section in the PDQ summary on for more information.)

Cannabis

Three trials have evaluated the efficacy of inhaled marijuana in chemotherapy-induced N/V.[22-24] In two of the studies, inhaled Cannabis was made available only after dronabinol failure. In the first trial, no antiemetic effect was achieved with marijuana in patients receiving cyclophosphamide ordoxorubicin,[22] but in the second trial, a statistically significant superior antiemetic effect of inhaledCannabis versus placebo was found among patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.[23] The third trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial involving 20 adults in which both inhaled marijuana and oral THC were evaluated. One-quarter of the patients reported a favorable antiemetic response to the cannabinoid therapies. This latter study was reported in abstract form in 1984. A full report, detailing the methods and outcomes apparently has not been published, which limits a thorough interpretation of the significance of these findings.[24]

Appetite Stimulation

Anorexia, early satiety, weight loss, and cachexia are problems experienced by cancer patients. Such patients are faced not only with the disfigurement associated with wasting but also with an inability to engage in the social interaction of meals.

Cannabinoids

Three controlled trials demonstrated that oral THC has variable effects on appetite stimulation and weight loss in patients with advanced malignancies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.[21] One study evaluated whether dronabinol alone or with megestrol acetate was greater, less, or equal in efficacy to megestrol acetate alone for managing cancer-associated anorexia.[25] In this randomized double-blind study of 469 adults with advanced cancer and weight loss, patients received 2.5 mg of oral THC twice daily, 800 mg of oral megestrol daily, or both. Appetite increased by 75% in the megestrol group and weight increased by 11%, compared with a 49% increase in appetite and a 3% increase in weight in the oral THC group after 8 to 11 weeks of treatment. These two differences were statistically significant. Furthermore, the combined therapy did not offer additional benefits beyond those provided by megestrol acetate alone. The authors concluded that dronabinol did little to promote appetite or weight gain in advanced cancer patients compared with megestrol acetate. However, a smaller placebo-controlled trial of dronabinol in cancer patients demonstrated improved and enhanced chemosensory perception in the cannabinoid group—food tasted better, appetite increased, and the proportion of calories consumed as protein was greater than in the placebo recipients.[26]

In a randomized clinical trial, researchers compared the safety and effectiveness of orally administeredCannabis extract (2.5 mg THC and 1 mg cannabidinol), THC (2.5 mg), or placebo for the treatment of cancer-related anorexia-cachexia in 243 patients with advanced cancer who received treatment twice daily for 6 weeks. Results demonstrated that although these agents were well tolerated by these patients, no differences were observed in patient appetite or quality of life among the three groups at this dose level and duration of .[]

Another clinical trial that involved 139 patients with HIV or AIDS and weight loss found that, compared with placebo, oral dronabinol was associated with a statistically significant increase in appetite after 4 to 6 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving dronabinol tended to have weight stabilization, whereas patients receiving placebo continued to lose weight.[]

Cannabis

In trials conducted in the 1980s that involved healthy control subjects, inhaling Cannabis led to an increase in caloric intake, mainly in the form of between-meal snacks, with increased intakes of fatty and sweet foods.[29,30] No published studies have explored the effect of inhaled Cannabis on appetite in cancer patients.

Analgesia

 

Cannabinoids

Pain management improves a patient’s quality of life throughout all stages of cancer. Through the study of cannabinoid , endocannabinoids, and synthetic agonists and antagonists, the mechanisms of cannabinoid-induced have been analyzed. The CB1 receptor is found in the (CNS) and in peripheral terminals.[] CB2 receptors are located mainly in peripheral and are expressed in only low amounts in the CNS. Whereas only CB1 agonists exert activity in the CNS, both CB1 and CB2 agonists have analgesic activity in peripheral tissue.[,]

Cancer pain results from inflammation, invasion of bone or other pain-sensitive structures, or nerve injury. When cancer pain is severe and persistent, it is often resistant to treatment with .

Two studies examined the effects of oral delta-9-THC on cancer pain. The first, a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving ten patients, measured both pain intensity and pain relief.[] It was reported that 15 mg and 20 mg doses of the cannabinoid delta-9-THC were associated with substantial analgesic effects, with antiemetic effects and appetite stimulation.

In a follow-up single-dose study involving 36 patients, it was reported that 10 mg doses of delta-9-THC produced analgesic effects during a 7-hour period that were comparable to 60 mg doses of codeine, and 20 mg doses of delta-9-THC induced effects equivalent to 120 mg doses of codeine.[] Higher doses of THC were found to be more than codeine.

Another study examined the effects of a whole-plant extract with controlled cannabinoid content in an oromucosal spray. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the THC:cannabidiol nabiximols (THC:CBD) extract and THC extract alone were compared in the analgesic management of patients with advanced cancer and with moderate-to-severe cancer-related pain. Patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups: THC:CBD extract, THC extract, or placebo. The researchers concluded that the THC:CBD extract was efficacious for pain relief in advanced cancer patients whose pain was not fully relieved by strong opioids.[] In a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial, opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly controlled demonstrated significantly better control of pain and sleep disruption with THC:CBD oromucosal spray at lower doses (1–4 and 6–10 sprays/day), compared with placebo. Adverse events were dose related, with only the high-dose group (11–16 sprays/day) comparing unfavorably with the placebo arm. These studies provide promising evidence of an “adjuvant analgesic” effect of THC:CBD in this opioid-refractory patient population and may provide an opportunity to address this significant clinical challenge.[]

An observational study assessed the effectiveness of nabilone in advanced cancer patients who were experiencing pain and other (anorexia, depression, and ). The researchers reported that patients who used nabilone experienced improved management of pain, nausea, anxiety, and when compared with untreated patients. Nabilone was also associated with a decreased use of opioids, , tricyclic , , , metoclopramide, and .[]

Cannabis

Animal studies have suggested a synergistic analgesic effect when cannabinoids are combined with opioids. The results from one pharmacokinetic interaction study have been reported. In this study, 21 patients with chronic pain were administered vaporized Cannabis along with sustained-releasemorphine or oxycodone for 5 days.[39] The patients who received vaporized Cannabis and sustained-release morphine had a statistically significant decrease in their mean pain score over the 5-day period; those who received vaporized Cannabis and oxycodone did not. These findings should be verified by further studies before recommendations favoring such an approach are warranted in general clinical practice.

Neuropathic pain is a symptom cancer patients may experience, especially if treated with chemotherapy or . A randomized controlled trial of inhaled Cannabis compared with placebo in 50 patients with HIV-related found that pain was reduced by more than 30% in 52% of patients in the Cannabis group and in 24% of patients in the placebo group. This difference was statistically significant.[] To date, no clinical trial has examined the effectiveness of cannabinoid preparations in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

Anxiety and Sleep

 

Cannabis

Patients often experience mood elevation after exposure to Cannabis, depending on their prior experience. In a five-patient case series of inhaled marijuana that examined the analgesic effects of THC, it was reported that patients administered THC had improved mood, improved sense of well-being, and less anxiety.[]

Another common effect of Cannabis is sleepiness. In a trial of a sublingual spray, a Cannabis-based mixture was able to improve sleep quality.[42] A small placebo-controlled study of dronabinol in cancer patients with chemosensory perception also noted increased quality of sleep and relaxation in THC-treated patients.[]

Current Clinical Trials

Check NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials for cancer CAM clinical trials on dronabinol, marijuana,nabiximols and nabilone that are actively enrolling patients.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Loading...
 Share



×
×
  • Create New...