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Specialized Eyeglasses Make Cancer Glow Blue For Surgeons


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Specialized Eyeglasses Make Cancer Glow Blue for Surgeons
February 11, 2014 | by Lisa Winter

Photo credit: Robert Boston/Washington University School of Medicine

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A new prototype eyewear makes cancerous cells illuminate blue while looking through the lenses. The yet-unnamed device was developed by a team led by Samuel Achilefu of Washington University and was used on a human cancer patient for the first time just yesterday
Depending on the type and location of the cancer, surgery can be a common first course of action to remove the diseased cells from the body. The surgeon must be careful not to cut away too much healthy tissue while at the same time getting all of the cancerous cells. As the cancerous cells are very small and can even be hard to distinguish under a microscope, surgeons need all the help they can get in properly identifying the cancer cells so they can be properly removed from the patient. If cells are left behind, the cancer will resurge and require additional surgery or more aggressive treatments.
The eyeglasses build upon previous research from Achilefu of a novel technique coined optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL). Molecular markers are introduced to the area slated for surgery and a video system detects and displays the luminescent cancer cells. The results of this study involving surgery in mice were published in October in the Journal of Biomedical Optics and seemed to be quite promising. The system is able to detect tumors with a diameter of 1 mm, which will reduce the amount of healthy tissue extracted during surgery. Going forward into human patients, a different biomarker will be used which will cause the tumor to glow blue on the screen.
On February 10, the glasses were put to the ultimate test as Dr. Julie Margenthaler used them to operate on a patient with breast cancer. After the surgery, she acknowledged that the technology is still in its infancy, but is “encouraged” by the potential, noting that it could reduce or even eliminate followup surgeries. While in use, the blue isn’t uniform; the shade indicates the concentration of cancer cells. Light blue patches are densely packed with cancer while darker regions have fewer diseased cells. The glasses will be used again later this month on a patient with melanoma. 
So what does it actually look like though the eyes of the surgeon? Check it out:

- See more at: http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/specialized-eyeglasses-make-cancer-glow-blue-surgeons#sthash.28uxeB1j.dpuf

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Nanomotors Steered Inside Living Human Cells For the First Time
February 12, 2014 | by Lisa Winter

Photo credit: Mallouk Lab/ Penn State

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A group of researchers from Penn State have pushed the realm of possibilities for nanotechnology further as they have successfully steered a nanomotor inside of a human cell. This is the first time this feat has been accomplished. The team of chemists, biologist, and engineers was led by Tom Mallouk and has been published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Nanomotors have been studied in vitro more more than a decade now. The hope is that eventually, they could be used inside of human cells for biomedical research. This nanotechnology could revolutionize drug delivery and even perform surgery in order to increase quality of life in the least invasive way possible. The earliest models were nonfunctional in biological fluid due to their fuel source. A huge breakthrough came later when the nanomotors were able to be powered externally via acoustic waves. The nanomotors used inside the human cells for the latest study were controlled by the ultrasonic waves as well as magnets. 
The researchers used HeLa cells, derived from a long-lived line of cervical cancer cells, to study the nanomotors. Getting past the cell membrane was easy, as the cells ingested the nanomotors themselves. Once inside, the ultrasound was turned on and the nanomotors began to spin and move around the cell. If the signal was turned up even higher, the nanomotor can spin like a propeller, chopping up the organelles inside the cell. They were even able to puncture the cell membrane, finishing off the death sentence. Used at low powers, the nanomotor was able to move around the cell without causing any damage.
The addition of magnets gave an important advantage: steering. The motors are also able to be controlled individually, allowing the operator to take a much more targeted approach to killing diseased cells. 
Ultimately, the researchers hope that one day the rocket-shaped gold nanorods will be able to move in an out of the cells without causing damage. The individual units could communicate with one another to target disease in the body, maximizing the efficacy of the treatment or even making the correct diagnosis. Working toward the goal of creating such advanced nanotechnology will not only push the boundaries of nanoengineering, but will increase our understanding of chemical and biological processes at the cellular level as well.
“The assembly of a rotating HeLa cell/gold rod aggregate at an acoustic nodal line in the xy plane. The video was taken under 500X overall magnification except for 00:23 - 00:32 and 01:16 - 01:42, where a 200X overall magnification was used.” Credit: Mallouk Lab, Penn State
“Very active gold nanorods internalized inside HeLa cells in an acoustic field. A demonstration of very active gold nanorods internalized inside HeLa cells in an acoustic field. This video was taken under 1000X magnification in the bright field, with most of the incoming light blocked at the aperture.” Credit: Mallouk Lab, Penn State

- See more at: http://www.iflscience.com/technology/nanomotors-steered-inside-living-human-cells-first-time#sthash.ArK7lNx4.dpuf

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