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Seeking Help To Include Autism As Qualifying Condition

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Calling all activists! I've been informed that there's an effort afoot to expand the currently accepted qualifying conditions under the M.M.M.P.. I'm told this effort is being spearheaded by Hayduke, Michael Komorn, Dr. Christian Bogner, and Zap.


There are citizens in MI that would be very likely to benefit from cannabinoid based treatments. As patients and caregivers that are aware of the medicinal value of cannabis, we now need to step up to the plate to ensure that the healing potential of this plant continues to become more recognized and legally accessible to any and all that may derive therapeutic value from it. There's currently considerable focus on working to get Parkinson's and Autism approved. If you have any other suggestions (possibly with those that can give testimony in mind) I'd encourage you to mention it.


I'm going to post links to research in relation to these conditions in their respective threads with a short bullet point summation. I encourage others to do the same. The research will certainly add value to the petition, but as many of you are aware, research doesn't convey the message with the type of emotional impact that can only be expressed through personal testimony. With that in mind we're asking that you help to locate citizens that suffer from these conditions who might be willing to give testimony. By providing a mountainous stack of scientific proof along with the testimony from citizens, we may have an effective one-two punch that will help to ensure the success of these efforts.


Here's what you can do:


  • Find individuals that suffer from Autism who are willing to give testimony. (This is crucial.)


  • Find the most current and relevant scientific literature in relation to these conditions and the ECS and post a link to it in its respective thread with a summation.


  • Ask each and every person in the medical field what they know about the emerging field of physiology called the endocannabinoid system. When they say nothing, print off these to give to them (even better to have them on hand):







That last one might not seem relevant or important to some, but I view this as one of the most strategically sound strategies in regards to winning over those in the medical field. You can't just give them a single study on mice and expect them to get much from it, but those two papers present an overview of the ECS that is absolutely undeniable in regards to its relevance in health and disease. Once they have that understanding, single research papers might make more sense to them and we may have more of their support. I believe that if you put those two papers in the hand of someone in the medical field, and they as much as read the table of contents, you will likely have successfully and single handedly brought one more person from the medical field into the fold. Eventually a critical mass will be reached and we can go back to learning from them, as oppose to the other way around.



(I was going to make a separate thread for the above statement, but I don't want people to have to read more than one thread to get informed about any particular petition, so I'm going to copy and paste it to both of the current petitions in separate threads.)



Here's what we're starting with for autism:



Here's a patent that claims to be able to diagnose autism and susceptibility to autism via direct correlation to the ECS:


As such, the level of anandamide is an indicator of social disfunction associated with autism spectrum disorders...

Based on the results of these studies, quantitation of endocannibinoids, such as annadamide, are of value in diagnosing or determining susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders...

Receptors levels determined through analysis of PET imaging will be directly compared to that for normal, non-autistic levels. Higher cannabinoid receptor levels, compared to receptors levels found in children of similar age, is diagnostic of autism or ASD or susceptibility of disease...





Here's a study that seems to correlate with the above patent. It's not really related to cannabis (the ECS is involved), but it might be used as an example that some of the most common over the counter medications potentially pose a greater risk than cannabinoids. They claim that acetaminophen 'provokes Autism'.


Acetaminophen/Autism: Alarm



This one shows an increase in the expression of CB2 in autistic children, and identifies CB2 as a potential target (CB2 up-regulation has also been shown to be neuroprotective against dopaminergic injury, not sure if that relates to autism):



The mRNA level for cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) was significantly increased in AD-PBMCs as compared to healthy subjects (mean ± SE of arbitrary units: 0.34 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.02 in autistic children and healthy subjects, respectively), whereas CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase mRNA levels were unchanged. mRNA levels of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D gene were slightly decreased. Protein levels of CB-2 were also significantly increased in autistic children (mean ± SE of arbitrary units: 33.5 ± 1.32 vs. 6.70 ± 1.25 in autistic children and healthy subjects, respectively). Our data indicate CB2 receptor as potential therapeutic target for the pharmacological management of the autism care.


Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders



Here's a study indicating where this research may be currently directed, claims autism and schizophrenia to be polar opposite diseases, and shows potential benefits of THC as a treatment option in self injurious and tantrum cases:


Our data provides a basis for further studies in evaluating the role of the cannabinoid and monoaminergic systems in the etiology of ASDs.


Data from comparative genomics of autism and schizophrenia support the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia represent diametric conditions with regard to their genomic underpinnings and phenotypic manifestations [16]


It is tempting to suggest the evaluation of Δ9-THC or other cannabinoids with reduced psychoactivity in irritability, tantrums and self-injurious behavior associated with autistic individuals.


Consequences of cannabinoid and monoaminergic system disruption in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorders



I can't get access to this but it certainly has an intriguing title:


Would some cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms of autism?



This draws a correlation to the valproic acid, the ECS, and ASDs. Targeting the ECS is suggested as treatment option:



In conclusion, the present data demonstrates alterations in the endocannabinoid system in adolescent rats exposed prenatally to VPA, effects which may underlie some of the behavioural changes observed in the model. Thus, modulation of the endocannabinoid system may provide a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of behavioural traits associated with autism spectrum disorders.


Alterations in the endocannabinoid system in the rat valproic acid model of autism



This one is a single case report of an autistic child treated with Marinol. Taken by itself it may not mean much (though it likely beats mice). However, if THC is the compound with cause for most concern, not only can it be shown that it can be beneficial, there is a slew research (including GW Parm clinical trials) that can be used to show the added benefits of additional cannabinoids found in cannabis far outweigh the therapeutic value compared to THC alone. This could include the characteristic of CBD to negate the psychoactive effects of THC. I can expand on this and provide citations if you'd like.


This study showed that the use of dronabinol may be able to reduce the symptoms of


Use of dronabinol (delta-9-THC) in autism: A prospective single-case-study with an early infantile autistic child


This includes more insight into the connection between the ECS and autism, and may provide insight into how to target:


Tonic endocannabinoid signaling was not previously associated with a specific regulatory mechanism but the link to NL3 revealed here validates the importance of this signaling pathway and suggests a possible endocannabinoid involvement in autism.


Endocannabinoid-mediated signaling at inhibitory synapses is dysregulated in mouse models of autism-associated Neuroligin-3 mutations. These findings carry implications regarding the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders and the development of treatment strategies.


Autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations commonly disrupt tonic endocannabinoid signaling


This is a proposal to move out of mice, and into non-human primates research on this. It includes a succinct summation:


It has been shown that autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations disrupt tonic endocannabinoid signaling in animals. Endocaanabinoids are neuromodulators produced by the brain, which act upon the same receptors and neuronal circuits affected by exogenous cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa. This system is central for brain homeostatic activity control, learning, social interaction, memory formation and emotional modulation, among several neuronal and physiological functions.


Targeting alterations in the endocannabinoid system of rodents and non-human primates for the study of autism

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I could have done a better job explaining why this info might be important.


The patent is a reflection of research that shows that autism is directly linked to the ECS. It's really very interesting. One of the things they claim to be able to do is give a person acetaminophen and based on the degree of modulation of endocannabinoids (one of the ways acetaminophen works is by modulating endocannabinoids) they are able to diagnose and detect susceptibility to autism.


This same research seems to have prompted the warning that acetaminophen provokes autism.


The expression level of CB2 receptors rises in cases of autism, and its believed to be a potential target for treatment of the disease.


There's also a considerable amount of literature of the benefits of utilizing THC to inhibit tantrums and self injurious behavior.


As time progresses and we dig up more research hopefully we can paint a more complete picture. What we can currently show seems like a solid argument to me. The ECS is directly linked to autism. The ECS is a target for treatment of the disease itself. The ECS is also a target for the treatment of some of the symptoms associated with the disease. Cannabis contains relatively safe compounds to target the ECS and treat autism. That's a good start in my mind. Now it's just a matter of solidifying that argument with more literature and personal testimony.

Edited by in vivo
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its going to be a challenge. i think autism itself is still not fully understood in the medical world.


i'm absolutely in favor of anything that could help people within the autism spectrum.

i'll try to dig up some research. thank you for working on it everyone.


btw when you submit the autism petition, make sure to mention just how few minor patients there are and that approving autism as a qualifying condition will probably not change those statistics. i say this because there was/is a member of the panel who always does the 'think of the children' thing and wow does that get annoying when she effectively blocks adults from getting health care because kids.

Edited by t-pain
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the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance supports medical marijuana for treatment of TS.


Tuberous Sclerosis is one associated condition of autism.



an easy to understand article on the ecs and autism study.


i know in vivo likes to quote research studies , but wow are those complicated to follow. even for doctors. i'm afraid some may not be up on chemical reactions in the body at that molecular level.



nice editorial on the autism website



Vol. 17, No.1, 2003
Medical Marijuana : a valuable treatment for autism?

I am certainly not an advocate for drugs-— either legal or illicit. I have never smoked
and I don’t care at all for alcohol. And I agree with Oliver Wendell Holmes when he said,
“I firmly believe that if the whole materia medica could be sunk to the bottom of the
sea it would all the better for mankind and all the worse for the fishes.”

Having said that: In ARRI 16-2 we published a letter from
a mother in Florida whose very large autistic son changed from a sweet, loving boy to a
teenager who flew into unpredictable rages which “were usually associated with self in-
jury, aggression and property damage.” She went on, “At times I had to lock myself in
the bathroom; otherwise he would attack me. We gave him many medications, but nothing

A friend suggested a solution: a brownie with marijuana baked into it. “Soon after he
ate the brownie,” she said, “my son’s anxiety disappeared, and his sweet, loving behavior
returned. He shows no signs of being under the influence of a drug. He now receives one
marijuana brownie and several doses of Marinol, which contains the active ingredi-
ent in marijuana, each day. This has clearly saved my child’s life and my family’s life.”

On page 7 of this issue of the ARRI you will find a letter from Ray Gallup, a well-
known autism activist in New Jersey whose teenage son has become extremely assault-
ive, sending members of his family to the hospital and requiring police intervention on a
number of occasions. Like Ray, thousands of parents are dealing with children who are so
out-of-control, and so violent to themselves and others, that they can make their own lives and
that of their families hellish.


In ARRI 16-1 we published an editorial on various means of dealing with such
severely self-injurious and assaultive behavior, but marijuana use was not an ap-
proach that we mentioned. Many drugs are used to control these kinds of behaviors in
autistic individuals, including risperidone (Risperdal), which has a large range of highly
toxic effects (ARRI 16-4).


It seems to me if one is going to need to use drugs, one ought
to consider a relatively safe drug, like marijuana, if research bears out the good results
that a number of parents have reported. I use the term “relatively safe” because
marijuana and Marinol, the prescription drug that contains the active marijuana ingre-
dient tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), do cause adverse effects—but these effects,
evidence suggests, are generally much less harmful than those caused by psychotro-
pic drugs. Marijuana may cause subtle long- term memory and cognitive decrements, al~
though evidence is equivocal (see related marijuana: a valuable treatment for autism?
ticle on page 4). The drug can cause cardiovascular problems including abnormally high
or low blood pressure, fainting, or abnormal heartbeat, can exacerbate depression
or other mental changes in vulnerable individuals, and can cause nausea, vomit-
ing, weakness, or sedation. The word is still out as to whether orally ingested mari-
juana is carcinogenic (although there is some evidence suggesting that it is anti-
car'cinogenic), and there is some concern that I am not "pro-drug," but i am very much
"pro-safe and effective treatment,” especially in cases where an autistic
individuals behaviors are devastating and do not respond to other interventions.

And early evidence suggests that medical marijuana may be an effective treatment for
autism, as well as being safer than the drugs that doctors routinely prescribe.
it can precipitate schizophrenic symptoms in some individuals. Also, the drug can cause
dependency and'possibly birth defects. Clearly, medical marijuana is not a drug
to be administered lightly.


But compare its side effects to the known effects of
Risperdal, which include massive weight gain, a dramatically increased risk of diabe-
tes, and an elevated risk of deadly heart problems, as well as a host of other major and
minor problems. Other psychotropic drugs are no safer, causing symptoms ranging from
debilitating tardive dyskinesia to life-threatening malignant hyperthermia or sudden cardiac
arrest. Of all drugs, the psychotropic drugs areamong the least useful and most dangerous,
and the benefit/risk profile of medical mari-juana seems fairly benign in comparison.

Moreover, the reports we are seeing from parents indicate that medical marijuana of-
ten works when no other treatments, drug or non-drug, have helped. Among the comments
received by a parent soliciting feedback from other parents who are using this treatment for
autistic individuals:


~ “I know it’s not the end-all answer, but
it’s been the best answer for the longest time for us in [comparison] to ALL the other medi-
cations. I cannot tell you how many months we would go on a medication wondering if it
was doing anything, anything at all. Here we can see the difference in 30 to 60 minutes.”

' “My son (who is almost nine years old) has been on medications to address his se-
vere autistic behaviors... None of the medi- cations has ever made a difference, except
for making his behaviors worse... A few months ago we tried the prescription drug
Marinol and noticed a drop in the severe episodes, no fits and little to no aggression to-
ward his teacher and family members on a daily basis. A few weeks ago we started him
on cannabis and stopped the Marinol. He has been in a much better mood and is much
easier to keep on task in the classroom now. He still has days when he gets angry and
moody, but we can adjust the dose to help him through those days... I feel much more
comfortable administering cannabis than something like Risperdal.” '

According to information ARRI has re- ceived, medical marijuana is not legal in
many states. Information on whether or not medical marijuana can be legally prescribed
in your state is available on the Internet, at www.mpp.org. Additional information
can be found at www.mapscrg/mmj, www.NORML.org, and www.druglibra.ry.org.

It is important to keep in mind the distinction between legalizing marijuana for
medical uses, which has been done in some states, and “recreational” drug use which is
illegal throughout the US. Judging from the evidence in hand, I believe legalization of '
medical use is justified. Legalizing marijuana for non-medical use (as has been done for
alcohol) is quite another issue. Even if medical marijuana can be legally
prescribed in your state, doctors are likely to be very reluctant to help you obtain the
drug. You may be able to obtain information or help from local AIDS awareness
and advocacy groups, which have been in the forefront of making medical marijuana
available to the public.


If you decide to try this approach, the Autism Research Institute would very much
like to learn about the results—-positive or negative. We are also interested in hearing
from physicians with expert knowledge about the benefits and adverse effects of
either short-term or long'term use of medical marijuana.

, Again, I stress that I am strongly opposed to drugs in general, and consider them a last
resort to be employed only when safer and more efficacious treatments fail. But while I
am not “pro-drug,” I am very much “pro- safe and effective treatment,” especially in
cases where an autistic individual ’5 behaviors are dangerous or destructive. Early
evidence suggests that in such cases, medical marijuana may be a beneficial treat-
ment, as well as being less harmful than the drugs that doctors routinely prescribe.

A two-page letter provided toARI by aparent, providing additional information about
medical marijuana and a list of more than 20 websites on the topic, is available upon request.
Fax ARI (61966345840) or send a self-addressed, stamped envelope and specify that you
. would like Marinol information


theres a book available from the parents of an autistic child

Jeffrey's Journey - Healing a Child's Violent Rages With Pot

here is an interview with the mom.

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Hey there my name is Rebecca (Becca) I have doing a lot research lately wanting to see what I can do to make autism a condition for medical cannabis in michigan. I've read that last August it was denied and I'm wanting to do anything I can possible to help my son Leonardo who just turned three last month. He thankfully has been attending a school for about a year now to help treat his autism, but I have complete faith that if he was able to use medicinal cannabis it will do wonders for him.



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thats great becca, its very brave of you to offer to help.


i guess getting your doctor to give testimony , or write testimony on how you've tried every medication and how those affected your child would be a good start.


if you come to give testimony in person, bring the ziplock bag of what i'm assuming to be a large number of prescriptions that either didnt help or the side effects were way too bad. maybe a list of side effects of both marijuana and your prescriptions. visual aides like that are very useful.


(these are examples, fill in with the actual side effects)

prescription side effects:

liver damage

breathing trouble

kidney stones

drooling zombie



over-sleeping, unable to wake up


or if you dont want to give testimony about your own family (i understand of course) you can help in other ways like offering to drive people to the panel to give testimony. or contacting doctors or other parents of autistic people to see if they want to testify or encourage them to write letters to the review panel.



just trying to kick out some ideas...

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its very difficult to get a minor signed onto the program. if your child is hitting himself or knocking his head against walls, you might be able to find a doctor to write him a mmj recommendation for muscle spasms. i could be wrong.


otherwise doctors are very ambivalent about helping autistic people because very often they cannot give feedback or consent to medical treatment. so doctors try to 'do no harm'. will a prescription help or harm the person? a non-communicative autistic person may not be able to tell the doctor. so even if you think it will help, thats not really enough for a doctor to go on.


so i think the argument you have to make is 

1. you've tried every single other prescription and nothing works

2. you just want to have the ability to try marijuana , anything to help. last resort kind of thing.

3. the side effects of the prescriptions you've tried are terrible and the side effects of marijuana are not dangerous.

4. the prescriptions prescribed for your child have never been tested on children in the first place. there is no safe dose for children.

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heres an article on a person with rett disorder, an associated disease of autism



Rachael Nelson is 11 years old, and her Mankato family has tried everything to stop the seizures.

Diets, medication, even a nerve stimulator implanted in her chest. Not only did the drugs not stop her seizures, they had nasty side effects, like vomiting and drowsiness so bad she couldn’t go to school. One drug made her seizures worse and another stopped her breathing.

Rachael has Rett syndrome, a rare brain disorder that overwhelmingly affects girls. She started having seizures at about 18 months and has had “hundreds and thousands” since then, said her mother, MaryAnn.

“It’s a life-or-death type situation,” she said. “I don’t know if the next one is going to be the time that she can’t get out.”

She is looking longingly at relaxed marijuana laws in Colorado to help treat Rachael.


obviously seizures are covered by our law, but there are other symptoms of this disease that could be included.


i think its going to be difficult for the panel to accept a range of disorders under the "autism spectrum".

you're going to have to present it in a way that makes sense.


actually, panel might not be right. are you appealing to the court then?

so you're going to be arguing in front of a judge? how will that even work? will the county prosecutor be on the other side? or the state attorney general? whos going to present testimony against your appeal? i realize this hasnt been done before but now i want to know what you think the process will be. 


maybe someone could call the court , the legislator, LARA , the governor etc and find out maybe?


or is this a different kind of appeal, instead of being able to present testimony, the only thing the judge will look at is if the panel convened in a proper manner and heard the evidence and held the meeting and if they did that and voted it down, then you cant appeal and the panel decision stands?

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I'll do whatever I have to, to get autism as a condition to use medical cannabis. I wouldn't mind telling Leo's story to anyone that will listen to me. Thing is, he hasn't ever been prescribed any medications yet. I don't want to resort to anything like that. I believe in medical cannabis, and much rather him be getting treated with a plant that's grown from our Mother Earth, then anything else. I know he's young, but as he gets older if his autism gets worse (like hurting himself) I want cannabis to be the form of help for him. Even now, if he was to be given a dose everyday, I can just envision a whole new Leo. He can't speak for himself, I have yet to hear my Leo say one word, and it's heartbreaking. I want to be the voice for him. @zapatosunidos what court work is necessary to get the petition heard again?

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I'm glad that you found your way here. I believe you're familiar with some of the families online on more traditional social media sites. I'd encourage you to take a look at the holy basil group there, if you haven't already. There are a number of families working with their physicians utilizing holy basil and seeing considerable improvements in symptoms of epilepsy as well as autism. Holy basil contains a dietary cannabinoid called beta-caryophyllene. Based on the research linked in this thread it might be a useful cannabinoid in this treatment, added to the current success of others it seems worthy of investigation.

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I will have to look into that, never heard of holy basil before. I would like to give testimony to the panel or court is it?? that decides what conditions are acceptable for the use of cannabis in Michigan, but I'm not sure all of what I could do to persuade them since Leo has yet to have tried any medications. I read last night that now 1 in 68 children are being diagnosed with autism. It's so sad and heartbreaking,a 30% increase in the last 2 years.

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There are a number of families reporting improvements in mood swings, communication, and sleep patterns. The group was primarily started for parents treating their children for epilepsy, and there's quite a bit of success (including EEGs), but I've noticed that autism and pediatric epilepsy are often seen together and after having read the above info I remembered that many parents were commenting on improvements that correlated to this treatment. I ended asking the group and there hasn't been a parent that's made a comment other than seeing benefit at this point. That's not to suggest that it's a magic bullet, but it certainly seems worthy of investigation. If you search for the 'holy basil alternative therapy group' you'll find them.   

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In this issue of Neuron, Földy et al. (2013) report that endocannabinoid-mediated signaling at inhibitory synapses is dysregulated in mouse models of autism-associated Neuroligin-3 mutations. These findings carry implications regarding the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders and the development of treatment strategies.




I'm not all that familiar with the symptoms of Autism, but based on a list from a random website these are a few that we can provide citation for (there are more citations available for each):


  • Mood/psychiatric disorders



  • Repetitive behaviors





  • GI disorders (85%)



  • Seizure disorders (39%)





  • Sleep dysfunction




  • Self injurious behavior and tantrums (citation already provided)


  • Tuberous Sclerosis





Overall, we're looking at the endocannabinoid system being a possible target for treatment of ASD. The point to drive home seems to be that the primary constituents in cannabis target a number of physiological mechanisms which are of therapeutic value in relation to not only the disease, but also a plethora of symptoms/associated conditions.


It might be helpful to add a generalized section that identifies the increased efficacy of botanical extracts when compared to isolated cannabinoids (ie clinically available). I'm not sure if this counter argument has come up previously, but it seems like any application could preempt it.

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There is no known treatment/cure for autism. If we look at the census estimate from 2013 there are 9,895,622 people in MI. According to the CDC autism is prevalent amongst 1% of American's. That's more than 98,956 Michiganders that suffer from ASD. The lack of known treatments is a direct result of not having previously identified the crucial role that the endocannabinoid system in ASD. This lack of understanding is also why until now there was no known way to clinically diagnose and detect susceptibility to ASD. That time has passed and those that suffer from ASD deserve access to cannabis as much or more than any other qualifying condition. That it took so long to identify the importance of the ECS is directly linked to public policy (ie schedule 1 status). The only thing standing in the way of physicians and their ASD patients that can derive benefit from the medical cannabis system that's already in place is public policy.   




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It is going to take a multipronged effort.  Because it is over 60 days since Autism was rejected, it will take a court challenge, unfortunately.  So first you submit all the data to LARA, then they will reject it as having been previously rejected by the panel.  At that point the only recourse would be a civil suit.

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  • 2 weeks later...

This is a work in progress, but I'm posting it to provide a clear overview to families that I'm reaching out to:



Until the discovery of the ECS there has been no possibility to clinically diagnose ASD (Schultz 2012).



ASD is directly linked to deficiencies in eCBs (like AEA, the body's natural THC), and an increase in CB2 expression levels (Kerr 2013, Krueger 2013, Foldy 2013, Malcher-Lopes 2013, Schultz 2012, Siniscalco 2013, Onaivi 2011).  The ECS is a target for treatment of ASD (Siniscalco 2013, Kerr 2013, Malcher-Lopes 2013, Onaivi 2011).  Cannabinoids have been shown to be of therapeutic value in studies focusing on ASD, including a case report (Onaivi 2011, Kerr 2013, Kurz 2010, Malcher-Lopes 2013, Siniscalco 2013, find more citations).

“Cytokines play important roles in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration” (Jean-Gilles 2010). Elevated cytokines in plasma are linked to autism and impaired behavior associated with it (Ashwood 2010, Molloy 2006, Abdallah 2013).  Cannabinoid activation of the ECS inhibits cytokine expression, and they display potent anti-inflammatory characteristics (Ashwood 2010, Klein 2005, Jean-Gilles 2010, Pertwee 2010, Nagarkatti 2009, Saito 2012, Croxford 2005).    

Exogenous cannabinoids from cannabis serve a number of similar functions to endogenous cannabinoids that are of therapeutic value in this treatment (Pertwee 2010).  Some relevant characteristics include:

  • Neurogenesis (Galve-Roperh 2007, Jiang 2005, Avraham 2014, Campos 2013)
  • Neuroprotective (Hampson 1998, Hampson 2003, Lara-Celador 2013, Marsicano 2002, Sanchez 2012)
  • Antioxidant (Borges 2013, Pertwee 2010, Hampson 1998, Hampson 2003)
  • Neuromodulation (Davis 2007, Lara-Celador 2013, Di Marzo 1998, Arévalo 2001, Hampson 2003, Pertwee 2010, Youssef 2012)
  • Anti-inflammatory (Pertwee 2010, Izzo 2009, Nagarkatti 2009, Klein 2005)      

In addition to the treatment of ASD (and the generalized therapeutic value of cannabinoids in relation to this treatment) there are specific symptoms, as well as associated medical conditions (to ASD), that are likely to derive therapeutic value from cannabinoid treatments. Some worthy of mention:

  • G.I. Disorders (Izzo 2010, Di Sabatino 2011, Wright 2008, Camilleri 2013)
  • Repetitive Behaviors (Casarotto 2010, Deiana 2012, Gomes 2011)
  • Seizures (Jones 2012, Porter 2013, van Rijn 2011)
  • Sleep Dysfunction (Ware 2010, Murillo-Rodríguez 2008, Carley 2002, Murillo-Rodriguez 2011)
  • Self Injurious Behavior and Tantrums (Onaivi 2011, Müller‐Vahl 1998, Passie 2012, Müller‐Vahl 2004)
  • Tuberous Sclerosis (Shu, Hai-Feng 2013, Zurolo 2010, Krueger 2013, Pomerantz 2013)
  • Cerebral Ischemia (Schmidt 2012, Choi 2013, Murikinati 2010, Garcia-Bonilla 2014)    
  • Depression/Anxiety (Hill 2009, Almeida 2013, Campos 2013, Schier 2012)
  • Cachexia (Engeli 2012, Gamage 2012, Marco 2012)

Abdallah, Morsi W., et al. "Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines: Potential markers of immunologic dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders." The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 14.7 (2013): 528-538.

Molloy, Cynthia A., et al. "Elevated cytokine levels in children with autism spectrum disorder." Journal of neuroimmunology 172.1 (2006): 198-205.

Croxford, J. Ludovic, and Takashi Yamamura. "Cannabinoids and the immune system: potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases?." Journal of neuroimmunology 166.1 (2005): 3-18.

Saito, Viviane M., Rafael M. Rezende, and Antonio L. Teixeira. "Cannabinoid modulation of neuroinflammatory disorders." Current neuropharmacology 10.2 (2012): 159.

Jean-Gilles, Lucie, Bruno Gran, and Cris S. Constantinescu. "Interaction between cytokines, cannabinoids and the nervous system." Immunobiology 215.8 (2010): 606-610.

Ashwood, Paul, et al. "Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome." Brain, behavior, and immunity 25.1 (2011): 40-45.

Nagarkatti, Prakash, et al. "Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs." Future medicinal chemistry 1.7 (2009): 1333-1349.

Klein, Thomas W. "Cannabinoid-based drugs as anti-inflammatory therapeutics." Nature Reviews Immunology 5.5 (2005): 400-411.

Izzo, Angelo A., et al. "Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb." Trends in pharmacological sciences 30.10 (2009): 515-527.

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Please help us to make history and provide relief for thousands of suffering families in MI!  We believe that families and physicians should have the legal right to utilize cannabis based therapies in the treatment of autism.  Please take a moment to sign onto a petition along with one of the leading pediatric neurologists in MI to demand that autism be added to the list of qualifying list conditions for medical cannabis. Thanks for your support!




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Great work. I don't know what else to offer that would likely be duplicated anyhow. Excellent resources. Put them together nicely cited and formatted and offer them as your written testimony. I'm sure they would like to hear from you. :jig:

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That's because the whole process is ruled by folks who haven't taken off their 'pot cop' hats and put on their 'can I help you?' hats. It's totally worked from an exclusionary position. It's a fence with no door in it. They cut a chunk of fence to let PTSD though and welded it right back in place when they were done. Just because veterans have clout and we don't.

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The process as outlined by the MMMA and Administrative Rules includes judicial review of the final determinations of the department. The disagreement will be resolved in court, even if we have to take down the whole fence to do it.

Attaboy! We own the issues and have absolute control over time and space.

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