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Bugs Buggin' You ?


trichcycler
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I don't think I could "fix" a destructive pest issue, as well as I can prevent one. I believe there are too many variables involved with pest infestation, and symptoms must be removed for the real fix. I never did have breakdown failure, or mites to this day, but certainly it was coming had I not made some great choices.  expensive choices.

 

The rooms were built for me, inside of a new steel building. I did this with my family in mind and our safety. I also managed greenhouses so went down that road also. I loved it. I've grown indoor vegetables for 20 yrs prior and really wanted the grow room off the pages of HT to be mine when mj was rec'd to me. I tried integrating food stuff with the veggies, and  mostly I didn't enjoy the results. I do still grow massive amounts of basil and rosemary. I use those for a couple reasons, I love them, I love their oils, I privately compost these and grow certain strains in that composted material, for the root transfer of sorts(another thread) and pests do not like the wafting smell of these delicious herbs.

 

My rooms are sealed, not "anally" sealed, but they don't need an outside air duct. I scrub the rooms air with massive cans, and keep a 50% humidity, 80 lights on, 70 lights off. I use a CAP atmosphere controller, a 12,000btu window type ac unit, exhausting into the open building area, and a solar exhaust fan sucking the air from the building during lights on(powered by the flowering hid's. I have an emergency exhaust, with no inlet, that never goes on(set to 90f)

 

My previous ac ran for 12 hours daily, even in the winter to maintain this temp, but my new one reads half of that on the portable kw meter, makes me happy, reduces cost, half off right now at sears. The wife would not stand for any signs of anything on the outside of the building, otherwise a mini split, rooftop, or even central air unit would have been my choice.

 

I've been a die hard hydro grower since, well forever. awaiting the chance to grow my herb, surely, but refrained, mostly cuz "she" was always lookin. but also fear. When it was time to grow my meds I yanked the other vegetables. I grow them in the greenhouse now instead.

 

As a hydro freak I grew my own meds first with pure basal salts from ECO, as I always have, with great results. The second one was with the Technaflora kit, a nice experience for sure, and I decided no more handling raw salts for me again. I had tried all of the advanced nutrient lines also, with good results, except empty pockets. hehe

 The last kit blew me away, by Dutch Master Gold, and rocked like no other. It was an expensive endeavor I found, and with the rumors of being able to supplement the shortages at dispensaries I was excited. I did that one time, got a bad feeling, but was well accepted into the "clubs". No more of that I thought and place my first post for a patient, yep , any patient. I ended up with a preacher, then a hippie, then a freaky youngin, a couple more of them, and kicked them all to the curb shortly after to reconsider the exposure. After examining my interviewing process, deciding what I really wanted in my life, I registered five patients at once in a couple months. This gave me the opportunity to be able to supply immediately, uninterrupted, and felt good.

 

This group in my registry taught me what it was like to be a patient, and experience their concerns as they did. I learned a lot from them, and all were long term. One couple moved, one patient moved to Hawaii, one is still with me, and one passed away.

The most important thing on their mind was the quality of our medicine, and I don't mean potency, as this was never an issue. I've kept up over the years with genetic collections, information, and subscriptions to the industry leader mags, and offered every cup winner available, and many more over the top selections.

I used neem oil freely in the veg room, mostly for those darn gnats. I soil drenched, and foliar applied it. It maybe worked some, but mostly made me feel like I was trying to do something right. I saw those hot shot strips even in the pics of magazine gardens, but knew I couldn't sleep if I chose those. Then I got thrips, OMG !! they were everywhere, an they fly !! I saw them stuck to some buds and that was it!! I had to get smarter, and some major changes were about to happen. I learned of using my co2 generator to instantly rid a room of all pests, for a do over sorta feel.  I no longer do this, because its not necessary for me to.

 

This all was going on while I was beginning to make the change to an organic hydro grow, one tray at a time. I ran 8 trays, all with different mixes, and at different stages of growth, with around 20 different strains total. I started with all of the off the shelf items that said "organic" and everyone failed to be capable of finishing a plant properly, at least to my patient standards. Every other part of my rooms were perfectly dialed, with repeatable results, so I had no reason to look any further than the latest change(s)

I had total success however with just composted rabbit crap from my farm bubbling in the reservoirs.

 

I grew that way for a bit, but just didn't like the thought of this organic approach of bringing foreign poop into the garden risking contact with the meds, a concern of every organic grower using composted poops I hope.

 I've since learned that rabbit poop is different and can even be used fresh, but still didn't like the thought, or the collections.

It came to me soon after that, worms were the answer, I hoped. I bought my first thousands of worms and began. I decided to feed them only rootballs, and daily leaf trimming, and its worked well so far, with no off smells.

 

I have over 25k worms now, in racks of commercial worm farm bins, and they recycle all of my soil for its next use, as well as eat my rootballs and a 5 gallon pail of garden trim weekly in their top feeder bins. They rise to the tops in search of food, but hate light. They will escape in the flower room during the night, and often do form the plant pots they ultimately end up in. so I keep them in the veg room for containment. They love the temps, and the fresh spring water weekly when I steal their bottom racks.

The soil is too hot for seedlings, or clones, so I supplement with happy frog and promix for my cups in veg. when transplanted they go into fresh worm made soil, needing no further fertilizers. All plants are in one or two gallon bags, and get two cups of spring water daily, and a cup of bubbling worm tea every other. The worms require care, and they breed like rabbits for me. They lay eggs by the way.

I water the tops bins of each weekly, and drain out the results, add it to fresh water and bubble constantly as my source of tea. All finish perfectly, usually within 60 days

 

Its intensive work, and the thousands of pests lurking in every bin is frightening, but they all have a job to do, and they do it well. I can see bugs crawling and writhing about, millions of tiny nematodes. This is an Integrated Pest Management. I works for me, and others here, I'm learning. Its dirt gardening at its tops, and no offense to hydro growers, but once the dirt issues are overcome, there is no better tasting, finishing, or testing cannabis available, imo. I compare it to an animal raised with an intravenous line, as opposed to one forced to find its food, and I know the bacteria, non existent in hydro, is a key to IPM. I sometimes miss my hydro, but can say I retired my mop and wet dry vac for good !!

 

peace out

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that last part was  not about a worm fed system like mine, but referring to the quality of finished meds from an organic dirt grow for clarification.

I traded my labor for the savings in nutrients. If I could have found an organic solution on the shelf that worked for me I most likely would have stuck it out.

I should mention the one that did work, is clean, and actually blew me away with results was Organicare pellets, but OMG do they stink, and I couldn't take it.

I am most positive that insects came with every 50 pound bag I ordered too, and Skunk magazine, where I read about this fert, who's resident grow suggested to me, even reported the same buggy results, but man oh man, it was truly awesome, and I used it up in my greenhouses, and even in the garden outside.

 

It started when I could no longer trust the ingredients of a "watered down farm nutrient" at the grow store. I watched these labeling wars for years, and decided all of those nute companies are or have been slimy in the biz, and I don't want to take the chance with heavy metal baths concentrating in a "sink" of reservoirs/components. I saw all kinds of growth regulators in the best of them too. I was sick of it, figuratively fortunately.

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It always seemed reasonable to me that you could feed the plants just themselves, as digested by worms. Are there any shortcuts to real worm bins?

Do you mean to ask whether plastic bins work to compost using worms? If that is the case, the answer is certainly yes. They are cheap and readily available. I've found that keeping dirt after harvest, having picked out the junk, it composts real well in a rubbermaid bin at room temperature, with or without worms. When adequately composted they are pretty much odorless, except for the smell of fresh dirt.

Edited by GregS
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IPM can involve pesticides, but in our controlled environments the less harmful earlier IPM steps will probably always get the job done. Really what I talk about and advocate is IPM with biocontrol. That means taking care of your environment first, keeping clean, and should anything get out of whack you intelligently release predator insects. It is a well studied and valid, low harm approach. IPM involves it self in soil and hydro, and nutrient choice, but it is a valid methology regardless of how you grow.

 

It's a well established fact that pests are less prevalent in well designed hydroponics setups, even vs. a good soil mix. I can give countless references from my cultivation books if someone doesn't believe this. Soiless mixtures hit with inorganic nutrients and hand watered is one of many examples of poorly designed hydroponic setups in use today. I call this poorly designed because the rhiosphere can easily succumb to soil borne pests, those pests can easily take over, but it's harder to establish "good guy" colonies like nematodes. Thus necessitating that pesticides be introduced into the root zone. Less poor, but problematic for different reasons, is recirculating hydroponic systems be they ebb and flow or even worse yet recirculating NFT / DWC. The problem there is that root rot and even the dreaded root aphid can spread at an alarming rate. Not to say that those systems can't grow massive, awesome plants in a speedy manner and with proven reliability it's just that they can't do that without regular cleaning, semi-regular bleach or very regular H2O2 (perhaps beneficial tea, I don't know what academia has to say about that), and PPM/PH testing or automation.

 

My solution is a drain to waste system. It uses marginally more water, and it just slightly harder to setup than ebb and flow, but the issues created by recirulating nutrients completely vanishes. From what I can tell it's not as effective at rapidly growing plants vs. DWC and RDWC but the production is equal to that of ebb/flow and does so with even LESS drama than E&F and that is really saying something. Low pressure recirculating "aero" is really just a form of NFT, and I have yet to see a successful HP aero setup not done by a mad scientist with cash/time to burn.

 

A good hydroponic setup will probably never succumb to rhiosphere pests, and will be very resilient against flying/crawling pests due to high plant growth rates from seedling/clone to harvest, and a poor one is just asking for trouble. Again, multiple academic references available to back up this claim.

 

A good soil will probably always contain some pests, unless you pastuerize/solarize/steam then innoculate or maintain a lab quality atmosphere, it's just that the good bugs will always win. And if they start to look like they are losing, it's usually easy to correct the issue. That is, of course, unless you have root aphids. If you get an RA infestation early in flower or before you will see losses. Follow the IPM steps and maybe you can save the crop, but you will see loses. 

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I bet there are. I'm guessing plastic bins of any sort would work, but for a hundred dollars a multi tier pro worm farm is had. All of the worm issues have been figured out for the user with these.

When I younger I recall using scrap bins and it wasn't the same. I didn't even know there were worm bins available. Feeding, draining, and reusing soil is more difficult in homemade bins in comparison.

Food stays in the top bins and forces worms to find their way into it, leaving the fresh, mostly worm free dirt behind in the tiers. Watering drains through all and ends up in a reservoir of sorts with a petcock drain. I wouldn't do it any other way. Separating worms from dirt isn't fun, and the commercial bins facilitate this task well by design.

I figured a 100 dollar bill is the donation patients give for a few buds, on one branch, of one plant.  It took me only two seconds to "not trip over dollars , to pick up nickels on this one, and now have several "stacks" in the veg room. They look good, smell good, and work perfectly.  uncle jims worms are the healthiest I've ordered, but its been a few years. With good care a thousand worms will double every couple months, making it unnecessary to buy more, unless something goes wrong. I've never worked within "budget in this craft, instead always went overboard with equipment. This has returned great results in the grow room, for me. I could do it all on a shoe string too, but those shoe string bugs cause many many problems often we see, and I just despise failure, and reinventing the wheel.

 

It always seemed reasonable to me that you could feed the plants just themselves, as digested by worms. Are there any shortcuts to real worm bins?

Edited by grassmatch
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I emptied a couple bottom trays and was thinking about the million crawlers in there, and how they might put fear into the hearts of a worm newbie grower. Not for the faint hearted. I would normally flip out if I saw these things in my individual plant bags, but I think I'm getting it now....they work for me, I pay them water droplets. They don't have their mj cards, so they avoid the unusable roots even.

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I haven't used the organicare pellets indoors in a couple years, and didn't have worms then, for record. I don't know what they're made of, but poop does come to mind

 

I feed my worms ONLY the spent root balls/dirt, and the daily fan/scrap leaves from the indoor mj garden only. Its my opinion that foodstuff does not belong in the grow room, and composting it will bring many other pests that are not manageable indoors. Meats, egg shells, banana peels, veggies fruits, are bad news for the mj worms, but awesome for the outdoor enthusiasts.

 

This is the tip of Veganics I believe, right at the top.

 

I do have "side" projects running also, like growing in different types of compost, like pine needles, basil, and others, for my personal fun. Results are as expected. "Terpeneology" is a  fancy here, and those are easily manipulated this way.

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This is true, terpene profiles are affected and even manipulated this way. With me it started with the d-limonene profile, and food grade d-limonene, then alpha pinene, then I learned the errors in my ways. A natural compost of terpene rich items is where its at. Growing in lemon rinds does little good for our plants, but composted lemon/rinds is a whole different gig, and a ton of fun.

I don't particularly enjoy the "coffee" flavors in cannabis, but surely I would expect the same results. Fresh grounds would retain more oils(flavors) than cooked ones I think.   

Fennel is my baby right now, but the pine needles are a main stay. I choose(or breed) for these profiles, and use the strains with the  strongest ones to manipulate. Blue Dream has a lovely pinene profile, while Las Vega Lemon Skunk is wild heavy in the dlimonene, so naturals to work with here. The possibilities are endless and we all know that its the terpenes that matter, with their delivery mechanisms. For instance Pure Gold caps contain 5% d limonene added. This facilitates a super fast blood brain barrier breach while carrying the remainder of the profiles.  The Punnets Square is a necessary tool for locking these down for breeding purposes.

None of these composts are ever added or mixed into the worm bins, but separately composted in their own, sans the worms.

 

For a closer peak into the grassmatch mind, I also "live" marinate my rabbits a week before their harvest. After fattening up on our native grasses, in the last week of life they're fed only property apples, carrots, and sometimes garlic chives too, exclusively, for an awesome culinary experience, both theirs, and mine. My native grasses here include every piece of trim from weekly med harvests, as well as the dried lawn grass cuttings from all year.

Edited by grassmatch
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awesome.

 

has My Brain just reeling today..  :)

 

thank you for the motivation from this thread this morning it makes me want to procure some worm farms.

 

i love the idea of feeding your rabbits the flavors... (slaps forehead and wonders why this isn't the food industry standard)

 

let me get this right..

 

you put your soil in your pots with many worms still remaining?  i love it... they try to escape into the pots when you water? does this create problems or do they migrate back into the soil when the water is gone?

Edited by mibrains
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You are welcome !

 

worms in planting soil?  Yes, not purposely though, incidentally. The finished trays often house the babies, maybe because they're not smart enough to rise, or maybe they don't need as much decaying matter to survive, not sure. But when I empty the bottom trays I see wigglers and fill my one gallon bags with this soil, worms and all. Now I'll grab a hanful if available, and chuck them back into the farm if I can, but no worries freeing them to the bags.

It is true, with lights off they will wander about, sometimes remaining in the bag for the duration, and often just settling into the dampest, dirtiest corner of a tray, the ones the bags rest in. I pay them no never mind until it's time to vacuum up the mess, then I try to save the escapees.

 

The worms like water generally, in their farm and in the pots. too much water though is worse than not enough, so a balance is needed. I don't know the numbers, but experience teaches quick. I don't check or adjust ph of the farms, or my water for that matter, no need here. If I fed food stuff I would need to monitor moisture and ph, but I don't do that.

 

Sometimes during watering I do see a head poke up, but by the time my plants are watered he soil is very dry, on the verge of wilt even, just like outside, so the drink is welcomed, they stay put, no issues. If I see a stray I throw him back into a pot. I don't need them to be in the actual post, but it is entertaining. Their populations rise quickly now so any losses are unnoticed. I often scoop out hundreds to feed the fish.  It really is a different dynamic than growing cannabis, but I try to replicate the outdoors, even seasonal changes.

 

I "ground" my bags to the earth and can see huge differences in the ones that are not. Most noticeable with lunar movement, but evident daily from season to season. Always made sense to me to reconnect them to the earth messages, now obvious to me. During the monthly full moon the worms in the individual grounded pots are much more active and visible than the non grounded pots for example. The clones cut during this cycle are my most vigorous ones, with the fastest rooting. Not sure if later growth is affected with those clones. my clones are not grounded. I have a dirt floor under my subfloor in the grow rooms, so poking a hole for the ground leads is easy. There's probably a simple plug to be made that utilizes the outlet ground, but I'm dumb that way.  

awesome.

 

has My Brain just reeling today..  :)

 

thank you for the motivation from this thread this morning it makes me want to procure some worm farms.

 

i love the idea of feeding your rabbits the flavors... (slaps forehead and wonders why this isn't the food industry standard)

 

let me get this right..

 

you put your soil in your pots with many worms still remaining?  i love it... they try to escape into the pots when you water? does this create problems or do they migrate back into the soil when the water is gone?

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some worm faqs from my uncle jim

 

No, red worms do not have eyes. They are very sensitive to bright light. They will try to hide as soon as exposed.

Where is the mouth?

sliding_worm.gifThe worms mouth is in the first anterior segment.

There is a small protruding lip just over the mouth, called prostomium. When the worm is foraging, this lip is stretching out. The prostomium is for sensing food.

Do they have teeth?

Red Worms have no teeth for chewing food. They grind food in their gizzard by muscle action.

How do they grind food?

Red Worms can only take small particles in their small mouths. Microorganisms soften the food before worms will eat it. Compost Worms have a muscular gizzard. Small parts of food mixed with some grinding material such as sand, topsoil or limestone is ingested. The contractions from the muscles in the gizzard compress those particles against each other, mix it with fluid, and grind it to smaller pieces.

If a worm is cut in two, will it grow back?

It depends on where the cut took place. If a worm is cut at the posterior end, sometimes a new tail will grow back on. Sometimes a second tail will appear next to a damaged tail. However, the posterior half of the worm can not grow a new anterior (head.)
What Are The Other Critters In My Composting Worm Bin?

What Are The Other Critters In My Worm Bin?

single_lizzard300x259.gifOnce your composting worm bin has been going for a while, you may notice other creatures like white worms, springtails, and millipedes living in your bin. This is normal, these creatures will not hurt your worms. In fact, they help the composting process. The only bugs that may be present that pose a threat to worms are centipedes. You can tell centipedes and millipedes apart by looking at how their legs are attached to their bodies. Centipedes have only one pair of legs per segment, millipedes have two pairs.

   

What do I do if my Compost or worm bin smells?

Unpleasant odors in a worm bin may result from too much food waste, too much moisture, or composting cheese or animal products. Control odors by removing excess waste. You can also make sure that drainage holes are not blocked and adding more drain holes or fresh bedding if needed. Always cover fresh food waste with at least one inch of bedding.

What Is Growing In My Worm Bin?

single_worm.gifYou may occasionally notice patches of mold or sprouts in your worm bin.

Molds and fungi are a natural part of the composting process, helping to break down the food waste. Vegetables may sprout in your bin because of all the nutrients present.

These things will eventually be consumed by the worms and other organisms, but you can keep the mold or sprouts out of sight by covering them with be dding

What Happens To My Worms In The Winter?

When it gets colder, your worms will slow down, and will not be able to digest as much food waste. You will most likely need to cut back on the amount of food waste you feed your worms between November and February. Red worms can survive cold winters outside if protected by bedding in a worm bin.

Do worms die in the box?

Its hard to find dead worms in a worm box, but they do die in the box. Dead worm bodies decompose very quickly, because their bodies are between 75%-90% water.

If you find many dead worms you should find out the cause. High heat (above 84 degrees) is fatal to them. Too much salt or acidic food waste can kill them.

Its best to change the bedding with fresh materials to solve the problem. Sometimes, partially replacing bedding may solve the problem.

How long do worms live?

Often, worms live and die in the same year. They are exposed to hazards, dryness, too hot or too cold weather. Eisenia foetida can live for as long as four years.

Do worms need air?

Worms need oxygen to live. The oxygen diffuses across the moist tissue of their skin, from the region of greater concentration of oxygen (air) to that of lower concentration (inside the worm.)

Carbon dioxide produced by the bodily processes of the worm also diffuses through skin. Moving from higher concentration to lesser concentration, carbon dioxide moves from the inside of the worms body out into the surrounding bedding.

A constant supply of fresh air throughout the bedding helps this desirable exchange take place.

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you literally ran a ground wire?

 

now that is interesting.

 

in my current life approach i found that removing my shoes and walking in the yard barefoot thereby grounding myself has had a remarkable and noticeable affect on my moods.

 

makes perfect sense to me that grounding the plant would have a positive effect as well.

 

seems to me it would be most efficient to run a wire directly to the earth... i may have to pound down a grounding rod and attach some wires... never really thought about the plants enjoying that same energy release i just recently discovered for myself.

 

thank you for the info.

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that's how I know you are enlightened !! way to go !

 

I had a post prepared just now, and lost it with a closed window. I see drafts are auto saved, how do I find mine? thanks

you literally ran a ground wire?

 

now that is interesting.

 

in my current life approach i found that removing my shoes and walking in the yard barefoot thereby grounding myself has had a remarkable and noticeable affect on my moods.

 

makes perfect sense to me that grounding the plant would have a positive effect as well.

 

seems to me it would be most efficient to run a wire directly to the earth... i may have to pound down a grounding rod and attach some wires... never really thought about the plants enjoying that same energy release i just recently discovered for myself.

 

thank you for the info.

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These are the most prevalent insect in my grow room, and a bit scary too, but after years of this I see no reason to worry. I do however use fresh dirt for vegging clones and seedling, partly because the worm dirt is too hot, but secretly I fear the springtails getting hungrier for more  than poop. they do emit light also, I swear !

 

 

1018150181_badge.jpg

 

Springtails

Collembola

What do they look like?
Length

2 to 12 mm
(0.08 to 0.47 in)

The springtails are soft-bodied, oval or roundish shaped, primitive insects. Their bodies are made up of six or fewer segments and they lack wings. Although many species have small eyes, some are nearly or totally blind. Their antennae are segmented. They occur in a range of colors including whitish, yellowish, brown, gray, bluish, or black, and they may be mottled.

Collembola have biting mouthparts that are entognathous. That is, the mouthparts are mostly retracted into the head. Some springtails have mandibles with well-developed molars. Others are fluid feeders, having stylet-like mouthparts. For these springtails, on the ventral side of the first abdominal segment, there is a tube-like structure called a collophore. This structure is the site of water uptake.

A forked structure or furcula is located on the ventral side of the fourth abdominal segment. This structure is used to propel Collembola through the air. A springtail that is 3 to 6 mm long can leap 75 to 100 mm. When a springtail is at rest, the furcula is held in place by a clasp-like structure called the retinaculum that is located on the third abdominal segment.

Some key physical features:

ectothermic.

Sexual dimorphism:

 

sexes alike.

Where in the world do they live?

There are at least 6500 species in this group. They occur worldwide. Seven familiies of Collembola occur in North America north of Mexico.

What kind of habitat do they need?

Springtails are mainly soil animals. They can be found in soil, leaf litter, fungi, caves, under snow fields, under the bark of trees, and decaying logs. In addition, they can be found on the surface of freshwater pools, along seashores, on vegetation, and in the nests of termites and ants.

Springtails can be found in extremely high numbers in a small area of soil or other organic material. For example, 100,000 springtails can be found per square meter of surface soil.

These animals are found in the following types of habitat:

temperate; tropical; polar; terrestrial; freshwater.

Terrestrial Biomes:

tundra; taiga; desert or dune; chaparral; forest; rainforest; scrub forest; mountains.

Aquatic Biomes:

coastal.

Wetlands:

 

marsh; swamp.

How do they grow?

Development is ametabolous in that the only difference between nymphs and adults is size. That is, appearance is the same among all life cycle stages. In addition, development is epimorphic in that a constant number of segments is present among immature and adult forms. Springtails are sexually mature after five molts, and will continue to molt throughout their lifetime.

How do they reproduce?

These animals have no parental care

Parental investment:

no parental involvement.

How do they behave?

During drought conditions, some species of Collembola are said to build shelters using their own feces.

How do they communicate with each other?

From the family Poduridae, some springtails have the ability to emit light. For some, a continuous glow is emitted, and for others, the entire body glows for 5 to 10 seconds.

Collembola antennae are used as tactile, olfactory, and sometimes auditory organs.

What do they eat?

Although many species are herbivorous, others are carnivorous feeding on other springtails, nematodes and other small arthropods. Those springtails living in leaf litter and soil usually feed on fungi, plant material, feces and algae.

Primary Diet:

omnivore.

What eats them and how do they avoid being eaten?
Known predators

 

  •  
  • small spiders
  •  
  • anything that eats small invertebrates

 

Springtails use their forked tail to jump away. Some produce toxic chemicals for protection too.

What roles do they have in the ecosystem?

There are a few species of Collembola that feed on live plant material, but most are beneficial to plants. Some feed primarily around the roots of plants and keep harmful bacteria and fungi from building to toxic levels that would kill the plant. These springtails also help to transport good fungi and bacteria to the area around the plant. Springtails contribute nutrients to soil because they speed up the process of decay and deposit nutrient rich feces back into the earth.

Key ways these animals impact their ecosystem:

biodegradation.

Do they cause problems?

Occasionally, springtails cause damage in gardens, greenhouses, and mushroom cellars.

How do they interact with us?

Collembola are important for enrichment of soil.

Some more information...

Collecting: You can find springtails by carefully turning over bark, checking along the edges of ponds, and of course, almost anywhere organic matter is present. Collembola should be preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. They may also be slide mounted for species level identification.

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High-performance medical marijuana gardeners have been hearing a lot about terpenoids lately. Terpenoids are responsible for the various aromas found in cannabis. Curious growers who dig into the subject, however, can quickly find themselves lost in a world of chemistry jargon. While all the science is interesting, what people really want to know is, "why do terpenoids matter in their ganja garden?"
To answer that question we first need to understand that cannabis, like its cousin hops, is a terpenoid producing machine. Most plants known to produce terpenoids, like eucalyptus, rose and lemongrass, only make a handful of different types. Cannabis can produce hundreds of types of terpenoids, making the number of combinations ostensibly limitless. This trait alone makes growing cannabis more interesting than growing almost any other plant. Terpenoids are more than just pretty smells though.
Vitamin A, Beta-Carotene, Lycopene and Lutein are all terpenoids. They range in their activity from simple smells, to essential nutrients, to the very building blocks of our DNA. Some terpenoids can regulate and modify human emotions. Even the much loved cannabinoids are a product of a reaction between two terpenoids (Geranyl pyrophosphate and Olivetol). But all terpenoids start in a similar fashion: isoprene building blocks.
Isoprene is found in almost all lifeforms and is considered one of the basic building blocks of biology. Specifically, isopentenly pyrophosphate or IPP... but that hardly matters. What matters is that this basic chemical "skeleton" is modified time and time again to make all the various terpenoids. Supporting this sort of complicated chemical process is no simple task. Most nutrient supplements used to improve quality are trying in one way or another to improve the rate at which your plants can produce these compounds. With this information in hand, it's not hard to see why supplements like enzymes and carbohydrates provide the building blocks needed for an increase in potency and aroma.
Various forms of hummus and compost contain these "building blocks" in high numbers. Gardeners can even control what "blocks" their ganja has available by making composts out of different plants high in certain terpenoids. This doesn't mean you can completely change the terpenoids and smells produced by your favorite strains directly, but you can influence them. In other words, making a compost out of apples and feeding it to your favorite girls won't guarantee they'll come out smelling like apple, but it could make a noticeable and somewhat predictable effect.
Many of these terpenoids are almost identical in their chemical structure but smell very different. For instance, Myrcene, found in mango, pineapple and most cannabis, is chemically similar to Myrcenol, which is found in lavender. Mango obviously has a different smell than lavender. If a particular strain of cannabis makes a lot of lavender smells naturally, feeding compost made from mangoes would likely increase that plant's lavender smell. Here's a list of important terpenoids and where they exist in other plants. Maybe begin to experiment to see if you can inject some of these flavors into your buds:
Myrcene: Mango, anise, pineapple, wild thyme, ylang-ylang, bay leaves, lemon, licorice, vanilla
Myrcenol: Lavender, hops
Linalool: Mints, laurels, cinnamon, rosewood, citrus fruits
Geraniol: Rose, geranium, lemon
Citral: Geranial (citral A) and Neral (citral B): Lemon balm, lemon myrtle, lemongrass, lime, lemon, orange
Citronellol: Rose, lemongrass, lemon balm
Limonene: Orange, lemon, grapefruit, currant, Muscat grape, aniseed oil, cinnamon, nutmeg, pepper, caraway, cardamon
Delta-Limonene: Coriander
Menthol: Mints
Alpha-Terpineol: Lilac, pine, hyacinth
Camphene: Basil, curry, tarragon, cumin, cinnamon, coriander, thyme, pepper, sage, anise, cedar.
Beta-Pinene: Pine, lemon, conifers (cone-bearing), rosemary, parsley, dill, basil, yarrow, rose, cumin
Alpha-Pinene: Pine, lemon, conifers, lemon, rosemary, eucalyptus

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Terpenes are natural products derived from plants that have medicinal properties and biological activity. Terpenes may be found in cleaning products, rubefacients, aromatherapy, and various topical preparations. Terpenes may exist as hydrocarbons or have oxygen-containing compounds such as ketone or aldehyde groups (terpenoids).
The basic structure of terpenes is repeating isoprene units (C5H8)n, and they are grouped according to the number of repeating isoprene units. Monoterpenes contain 2 isoprene units; examples include cantharidin, menthol, pinene, and camphor. Diterpenes contain 4 isoprene units; examples include phytol, vitamin A1, and paclitaxel (Taxol).
The best-known compounds in this group are camphor oil and turpentine. The antineoplastic agent paclitaxel is a terpene derived from yew plant bark. An oil derived from the Saliva officinalis tree, thujone, has recently become popular because of its hallucinogenic qualities, and it is quickly becoming a drug of abuse.
Absinthe, a green liquor containing thujone, has been thought to be responsible for enhancing the creativity of many famous artists including Edouard Manet, Vincent Van Gogh, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.

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trichomes_01-300x300.jpgTerpenes are volatile compounds produced by many plants, as well as some insects. Plants that produce terpenes often possess smells and flavors we find pleasing and are known as aromatic herbs. These aromatic plants have been used by cultures around the world, not only for perfumery and cooking, but also as medicine. The distinctive flavor and smell of each aromatic plant is caused by its unique blend of terpenes. 120 distinct terpenes are produced by the genus Cannabis, with the relative concentrations of the individual terpenes varying greatly among the 700 distinct strains currently in cultivation. Aside from taste and smell differences between varieties, this helps contribute to the broad diversity of potential medical applications of Cannabis. Laboratory experiments have shown that the full range of psychoactive and medical effects of Cannabis resin cannot be re-created simply with the use of pure cannabinoid type drugs like THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Marinol and Dronabinol, two drugs containing synthetic THC that have demonstrated limited medical benefits when compared with the use of Cannabis material containing the full range of cannabinoids and terpenes. These observations indicate that in addition to the psychoactive properties present in Cannabis resin, secondary components including terpenes are either psychoactive themselves, or are able to modulate or potentiate the affect of the cannabinoids when ingested in combination. GW Pharmaceuticals has invested extensive research into Cannabis based medicines, concluding that terpenes played a significant role in the effectiveness of the medication. GW is now manufacturing the most widely used medical marijuana product in the world an oral spray called Sativex, which contains a standardized mixture of Cannabis terpenes in addition to a mix of THC and CBD (Canabidiol).
From a chemical standpoint, terpenes are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons that make up a majority of plant resins and saps. The name “terpene” comes from turpentine, a terpene-based solvent distilled from pinesap. Essential oils, composed primarily of terpenes, have a long history of topical and internal medicinal use. Cannabinoids like THC are chemically classified as terpenoids, meaning they are derived from terpenes themselves. This explains the common practice among marijuana users of judging the quality of dried cannabis or hashish based largely on the quality and intensity of the smell. In high-THC cultivars, because the THC is made from terpenes, their content is usually correlated with psycho activity.
The resinous trichromes of the cannabis plant contain both the cannabinoids as well as the terpenes, which are constantly being replaced as they evaporate from the resin. The resin of high THC cannabis contains approximately 20 percent terpenes, and 50 percent cannabinoids by weight. The essential oil has traditionally been used as a treatment for skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis, as a topical antibiotic agent, and to increase circulation. In addition to these topical uses, it is now known that terpenes present in Cannabis do possess neurological effects, altering the production of the neurotransmitters seratonin and dopamine, as well as acting as type 2 cannabinoid receptor agonists. Another significant action when used in combination with cannabinoids is their ability to alter the permeability of both cell membranes and the blood/brain barrier, causing THC and other active cannabinoids to have a faster onset and more thorough absorption. Myrcene and several other terpenes are known to act as mixed agonist/antagonists of cannabinoid receptors, modulating the effects of THC in a similar fashion to CBD (cannabidiol).

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The Major Terpenes of Cannabis Resin and Their Effects
Borneol – Borneol is a major component of cannabis resin that can also be found in cinnamon and wormwood (Artemesia spp). In Chinese medicine herbs containing borneol are recommended for fatigue and overstress. Borneal is mentioned to be a calming sedative.
Corryphyllene – Corryphyllene is a major component of cannabis resin that can also be found in black pepper and cloves. It is a fairly weak agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptors (cb2). As a constituent of a salve or lotion corphyllene is an effective anti- inflammatory and analgesic. Drug dogs are trained to specifically sniff out corphyllene epoxide, a similar compound produced only by cannabis.
Cineole/eucalyptol – Cineole/eucalyptol content is quite variable across varieties of Cannabis, but is often a major component of the essential oil. It is also found in rosemary and eucalyptus and is used to increase circulation, and reduce pain and swelling when applied topically. It readily crosses the blood/brain barrier, possibly helping cannabinoids to cross more readily as well. The effects of cineole, when combined with oral or smoked Cannabis, are reported as being very uplifting, noticeably increasing mental and physical energy. This terpene, or others like it, may be responsible for the reported difference in effect between indica and sativa strains with a similar cannabinoid profile.
Limonene – Found in cannabis resin as well as tropical fruit rinds, limonene is an anti-bacterial, anti fungal and anti cancer agent. Currently undergoing trials for use as an anti depressant, it is also known to increase the absorption of other terpenes by making cell membranes more permeable. The presence of this anti fungal agent may be helpful in protecting against Aspergillus infection in those with compromised immunity when using spoiled or poorly cured marijuana. Limonene is currently in trials to study its ability to prevent breast cancer formation.
Delta-3-Carene – A component of cannabis, rosemary, pine, and cedar resin. Aromatherapy oils that contain high levels of delta3carene are used to dry excess fluids from the eyes, nose, or mouth. It is thought to be at least partially responsible for the dry mouth and eye problems that are common side effects of the use of cannabis.
Linalool – This major component of cannabis and lavender oils is believed to possess anti anxiety and sedative properties. Strains that are high in linalool and similar compounds may be particularly beneficial for patients who experience insomnia when consuming Cannabis.
Myrcene – Significant concentrations of myrcene are present in cannabis resin. It is also found in mango, hops, lemon grass, East Indian bay tree, and verbena. Because of its appealing fragrance, myrcene is used in the perfume industry. It has a similar modulating effect on the binding of Cannabinoid agonist drugs as Cannabidiol, possibly reducing effects of Cannabis resin that are found to be unpleasant for some medical users. It has anti microbial, anti septic, analgesic, anti oxidant, anti carcinogen and anti-inflammatory properties. It has shown some promise when used as an anti depressant, or as an additive to other anti depressant drugs and is also used in massage therapy as a muscle relaxer.
Terpineol – Minor component of Cannabis resin, used extensively in the perfume industry. Interestingly this terpene decreases motility of lab rats by 45 percent, this observation coupled with the fact that this is a terpene produced primarily in Cannabis indica plants indicates terpineol could play a role in decreased motility sometimes referred to as “couch lock”.

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Two analytic chemists in California have been testing Cannabis for terpenoid content and more are gearing up to do so. We asked them if the compounds that are showing up are the same as the ones mentioned by Ethan Russo in his influential paper on the "Entourage Effect" (limonene, alpha-pinene, myrcene, linalool, beta-caryophyllene, nerolidol, caryophyllene oxide, and phytol)?
Jeff Raber of the Werc Shop said he would add terpinolene to the list of commonly encountered terpenoids. As of late December, his most notable findings:
• Myrcene (which is said to be sedating) —3.2% by weight in a Pure Kush sample;
• Limonene (alerting) —1.6% in White Diamond;
• Alpha-Pinene —1.1 % in Haley's Comet;
• Beta-Caryophylene —1% in Diablo OG.
Don Land of Halent Labs also has been finding terpinolene in California Cannabis. (It's most abundant in the needles of fir trees.) Halent reported finding high levels of:
• Limonene in Purple Gold Mine (2.3%) and Odyssey (1.3%);
• Myrcene in Purple Kush (2%) and Super Silver Haze OG (2%);
• Alpha-Pinene in Blue Dream (2.1%) and Sour Diesel (1.6%);
• Beta-caryophyllene in Chem Dawg and Platinum Chem Dawg;
• Terpinolene in Jack the Ripper (0.8%), LA Confidential (0.7%) and White Fire OG (0.7%);
• Linalool in Kush Daddy and Fire OG 0.2%;
• Phytol and caryophyllene oxide only in concentrates.
Land adds, "Some strains, such as Blue Dream, Sour Diesel, and Super Silver Haze have been measured multiple times and are consistently high in the terpene specified…
"Genetics seems to control the relative content, while skill of the grower determines the overall yield."
The Werc Shop had tested "almost 1,000" samples for terpenoids as of late December 2011. The leaders to date:
• Myrcene -3.2% in Pure Kush;
• Limonene -1.6% in White Diamond;
• Alpha-Pinene -1.1 % in Haley's Comet;
• Beta-Caryophylene -1% in Diablo OG.
Raber considers it too early to say which terpenoids predominatein a given strain. "They're all over the map. It will take a large number of samples before a pattern emerges. And the current naming system is quite convoluted. We are enlisting some bioinformatics specialists to help us mine the information more systematically."

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The anthacyanins in marijuana can be easily solvent extracted using water as a solvent. If the material is re dried, it's original essential oils remain intact and can be extracted later.
In flowers, bright-reds and -purples are adaptive for attracting pollinators. In fruits, the colorful skins also attract the attention of animals, which may eat the fruits and disperse the seeds. In photosynthetic tissues (such as leaves and sometimes stems), anthocyanins have been shown to act as a "sunscreen", protecting cells from high-light damage by absorbing blue-green and ultraviolet light, thereby protecting the tissues from photoinhibition, or high-light stress. This has been shown to occur in red juvenile leaves, autumn leaves, and broad-leaf evergreen leaves that turn red during the winter. The red coloration of leaves has been proposed to possibly camouflage leaves from herbivores blind to red wavelengths, or signal unpalatability, since anthocyanin synthesis often coincides with synthesis of unpalatable phenolic compounds.
In addition to their role as light-attenuators, anthocyanins also act as powerful antioxidants. Eaten in large amounts by primitive humans, anthocyanins are antioxidant flavonoids that protect many body systems. They have some of the strongest physiological effects of any plant compounds.
I'm not sure about the effects of smoking anthacyanins, but, i use my brightest ones to make tea in a percolator. first with some water, then milk, cacao or tea, and I swear I can tell the difference immediately between a "brown bud" or a "lavender bud" !
interesting;
Anthocyanins have been used in organic solar cells because of their strong light harvesting, and their ability to convert of this light energy into electrical energy. The many benefits to using dye-sensitized solar cells instead of traditional pn junction silicon cells include lower purity requirements and abundance of component materials, such as titania (and potentially anthocyanins), as well as the fact they can be produced on flexible substrates, making them amenable to roll-to-roll printing processes.
go for the colorful ones !

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The Purples – Linalool – Grape Connection

 

Many purple varieties such as Granddaddy Purple, Purple Erkle, Mendo Purps, Grape Ape and Lavender have elevated levels of a terpene called linalool. Linalool is found in large quantities in lavender and grapes as well (hence the association already in place on some of these strain names). Linalool is a terpene with potent anti-anxiety, sedative, and analgesic effects. Linalool modulates the same receptor types (GABA) as Zanax. The analgesic effects are further potentiated by an association with CBD (an “entourage effect”) so high-linalool, high-CBD strains would have more potent analgesic properties than plants that were rich in only one of the two compounds. Linalool is one of the most researched of the terpenes due to its common use in aromatherapy. In addition to its well-established anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects, linalool has anticonvulsant properties and has even been shown to decrease morphine usage in post-surgical patients indicating anti-addiction potential.

 


Pining for Pinene? Try some Blue Dream.

 

Pinene is another common terpene found in cannabis and, as the name would imply, is the compound responsible for the smell of pine trees. It's the most widely encountered terpene in nature, and provides a number of important medical utilities including anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and bronchiodialation effects. Patients with asthma, for instance, could further increase the bronchiodialating effects of cannabis by selecting a particularly “piney” variety to consume in their vaporizer. Pinene is also a potent, broad-spectrum antibiotic (even against MRSA, or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), making it a potential treatment for patients with recurring respiratory infections. (Obviously, the use of a vaporizer is preferred for all cannabis patients, but especially for those with respiratory ailments.) Blue Dream typically tests very high in pinene but also contains higher than average levels of linalool as well. Anecdotally, there are also some very “piney” cuts of OG Kush out there, no doubt rich with pinene as well. Perhaps the most interesting effect of pinene is it's role as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which has been shown to aid memory, perhaps alleviating or eliminating potential memory hiccups in certain cannabis patients.

 


Lift Your Spirits with Limonene

 

From Cali Orange to the Lemon Hazes, growers and smokers alike are often attracted to citrus-scented plants. While there are several compounds that can contribute a citrus smell to plants, the most common is limonene. Recently, I developed a new variety that I named “Tangerina.” A cross of a rare sativa known as Cole's Train and the famous but elusive Strawberry Kush, the Tangerina was selected specifically for it's overwhelming sweet-orange smell (and the extremely high levels of limonene that produce it). For patients looking for anti-depressant cannabis, this variety is outstanding. Citrus oils and extracts have been shown to alleviate symptoms of depression from simple exposure to the smell in ambient air. In one study, 9 out of 12 patients successfully discontinued their anti-depressant medications from citrus fragrance exposure alone. Limonene also acts as an anti-anxiety agent, an immune system regulator, and even kills breast cancer cells. What more could you ask for?

 

“I Want the Terpenes to Make Growing the Plants Easier”

 

Ok, Mr. and Mrs. Wants-It-All, you happen to be in luck. Terpenes in the plants are typically meant to be defense mechanisms against insects and/or pathogens. Pinene is a strong insect repellant and other common terpenes such as caryophyllene, pinene and nerolidol have antifungal/antibacterial properties. In the case of the Tangerina, the limonene that gives it such a delightful sweet-orange flavor also makes the Tangerina extremely resistant to fungal diseases – especially powdery mildew. It's the only plant I'd ever call “mildew-proof” from the ground up. It's a great example of selecting for an extreme terpene trait that had additional unexpected benefits. (Since it was just released a month ago, the only place that has the Tangerina is MedMar Healing Center located in San Jose.)

 


When Smell is Still the Enemy

So, believe it or not, there are still a bunch of people out there who aren't willing to look at the long-established scientific fact that cannabis is effective medicine. Some of them even make a living by hunting down flower-smoking patients in a world full of violent criminals. I know, sometimes it can be easy to forget, but I'd be negligent for getting you all excited about growing the smelliest ganja possible without stressing the importance of proper smell control in your garden. Keep your room and exhaust system tight to keep those smells from leaking out. Alternatively, growers could also try to select for a variety with no smell at all. Don't laugh, I've seen them. (Let's just say the growers were more excited about a non-smelling strain than the patients.)

 

Still, in certain areas, growers and consumers alike could relax easier if their joint only contained cannabinoids (which don't smell), but no identifiable terpenes. For instance, the terpene responsible for identification by drug-sniffing dogs is caryophyllene oxide. It seems like someone somewhere could utilize today's technology to breed strains that lacked caryophyllene oxide to select for a “ghost strain” that even drug dogs couldn't detect. (Attn: cannabis breeders - re-read the previous sentence again.)

 


Find the Key to Your Lock: The Complete Cannabis Chemotype

 

Many growers are familiar with the vernacular use of the phrase “phenotype” to refer to different plants within a generation of seeds (technically, it's supposed to be “genotype,” but whatever). This is the genetic makeup of the plant and it's characteristics such as stature, flowering time and general potency. A plant's “chemotype” is the unique signature of its chemical composition. With over 100 terpenes already identified in cannabis and up to 40 at a time present in a single plant, each unique individual of cannabis will produce a unique profile of chemical constituents. In this way, each variety is like a “key” - a distinct chemical recipe made up of cannabinoids and terpenes in varying amounts. On the flip side, we humans are our own distinct biochemical structure – like a lock. Being able to identify and associate terpenes to their effects will help medical cannabis patients more precisely find the exact “key” for their ailment. It is also important to recognize that even within a single patient's condition, they may need several different key types depending on the time of day or symptom type. For instance, patients suffering from depression may want to try high limonene strains such as the Tangerina in the morning or during the day, but if there is a secondary symptom of sleep issues at night (common in many depression patients), they may want to medicate with a high-linalool purple variety like Purple Erkle or GDP before going to bed to ensure a good night's sleep.

 


Specific Medicine, Safe Medicine

 

As we've seen, there's so much more to cannabis medicine than just THC. Terpenes can alter the effects of medical cannabis to make each strain more specific to certain symptoms or ailments. Also, terpenes and cannabinoids share certain precursors, so a plant could test lower in THC than what people expect but still deliver very effective results (like the GDP, which typically tops out around 15% THC, but is rich in potent terpenes). In addition to being potent, it's also important to remember that all of these compounds are flavor and fragrance components that are common to our diets. All of them are “Generally Recognized as Safe” by the FDA. For myself, the thought of food-related chemistry in cannabis medicine brings to mind that old quote by Hippocrates: “Let thy food be thy medicine.”

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Got Vibes ?

 

There is a subtle bio-energy that flows through all organic life. It goes by many names and is sometimes referred to as Chi or life force. This energy is expressed as an electromagnetic vibrational frequency – and pure essential oils have the highest frequencies of any measured natural substance.
What is vibrational frequency? And why do we care about it?
A review of our grade school science lessons reminds us that everything vibrates. Every atom in the universe has a specific vibratory or periodic motion. Each periodic motion has a frequency (the number of oscillations per second) that can be measured in Hertz. Every element in the Periodic Table has a specific vibratory frequency.
Most plants (and animals) use enzymes to break down molecular components during their life processes. And each of these enzymes has a unique crystalline form with a specific vibratory frequency.
The vibrational frequency of an oil reflects the integrity of these elements and enzymes embodied within its substance –its bio-energy or life force and its original intent. This factors into an oil’s potential therapeutic value.
 

Measuring Vibrational Frequencies

During his work with plants, soil, and water in his agricultural projects, Bruce Tainio of Tainio Technology invented and built a machine called a BT3 Frequency Monitoring System. This device – modified and perfected over the years - used a highly sensitive sensor to measure bio-electrical frequencies of plant nutrients and essential oils.
To summarize how it worked - As a Hertzian wave is generated and travels out from its source, it transfers energy to the objects it passes through. The frequency monitor’s sensor measures the nano voltage of that wave, using the predominant frequency in the megahertz range, filtering out the lower and higher ranges. The BT3 measures the composite frequency of the vibratory emissions in electrical voltage – MHz - of the elements and enzymes remaining in the oils.
See - www.coherentresources.com/bt3_monitor.phpAlthough Tainio no longer produces the BT3 Monitor for reasons noted on the website, the findings gleaned from his research conducted over the years with this device are remarkable.
For example, here are the average frequencies of some of the therapeutic grade essential oils that have been measured:
 

  • Rose (Rosa damascene).....................320 MHz
  • Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia)........118 MHz
  • Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha)................105 MHz
  • Blue Chamomile (Matricaria recutita).....105 MHz
  • Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma)............98 MHz
  • Aloes/Sandalwood (Santalum album)......96 MHz
  • Angelica (Angelica archangelica)...........85 MHz
  • Peppermint (Mentha peperita)..............78 MHz
  • Galbanum (Ferula gummosa).................56 MHz
  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum)......................52 MHz


The measured frequencies of essential oils begin at 52 MHz, the frequency of basil oil, and go as high as 320 MHz — the frequency of rose oil. For comparison, fresh produce has a frequency up to 15 MHz, dry herbs from 12 to 22 MHz, and fresh herbs from 20 to 27 MHz. Processed and canned foods have no measurable frequency whatsoever.
 

Human Electrical Frequencies and Fields

Dr. Robert O. Becker, in his book The Body Electric, tells us that the human body has an electrical frequency, and also that much about a person's health can be determined by its frequency levels.
In addition to his plant studies, Tainio developed a way to use his machine to measure human electrical vibrational frequency by taking readings on various points of the body and averaging those numbers together. His measurements indicate that the daytime frequency of a healthy human body vibrates in the range of 62 to 68 MHz.
Intriguing as Tainio’s research is, its foundation may have been laid in the early years of the 20th century by Dr. Royal R. Rife, M.D. (1888-1971). Dr. Rife conducted research with a machine he developed called a “frequency generator” that applies currents of specific frequencies to the body. He concluded that every disease has a specific frequency.
According to Dr. Rife every cell, tissue and organ has its own vibratory resonance. Working with his frequency generator, he found that specific frequencies would destroy a cancer cell or a virus. His research demonstrated that certain frequencies could prevent the development of disease, and that others would neutralize disease.
Bjorn Nordenstrom, a radiologist from Stockholm, Sweden, discovered in the early 1980s that, by putting an electrode inside a tumor and running a milliamp of DC current through the electrode, he could dissolve a cancer tumor and stop its growth. He also found that the human body had electropositive and electronegative energy fields.
Studies conducted in 1992 by Tainio Technology, as an independent division of Eastern State University in Cheny, Washington, reinforce the findings of these earlier researchers. Tainio and colleagues determined that when a person's frequency drops below the optimum healthy range, the immune system is compromised. Findings supported by this research indicate that:

  • Human cells can start to change (mutate) when their frequency drops below 62MHz.
  • 58 MHz is the frequency of your body when you have a cold or the flu.
  • When candida is present within your body, you vibrate at a frequency of 55MHz.
  • 52 MHz is the frequency of a body with Epstein-Barr virus present.
  • 42 MHz is the frequency of a body wherein cancer can appear.
  • When the death process begins - the frequency has been measured at 20 MHz.

 

 

Effects of Outside Influences on Body Frequency

The study of frequencies raises an important question – how do the frequencies of substances found in our environment affect our personal frequency? Based on his studies, researcher Nikola Tesla said that, if we could eliminate certain outside frequencies that interfered in our bodies, we would have greater resistance toward disease.
Pathogens have a low frequency. Pollutants - both particulate and radiation (EMF) - lower a healthy frequency. Processed and canned food having a frequency of zero can greatly diminish a person's own frequency.
Even thoughts and feelings have a vibratory quality that forms a measurable frequency. A negative mental state can lower a person's frequency by 10-12 MHz.
Likewise, a substance or influencing factor - such as thoughts, emotions, and frequency devices - in our internal and external environments can also serve to raise our frequencies. For example, a positive mental attitude, prayer or meditation can raise it by 10-15 MHz.
A substance with a higher frequency can raise a lower frequency due to the principle of entrainment - the tendency for two oscillating bodies to lock into phase so that they vibrate in harmony. This principle is key to understanding the effect essential oils can have on our personal electromagnetic frequency.
However, different types of frequencies can have a chaotic or a harmonizing effect on our own systems. When something vibrates at many dissonant frequencies, it produces “chaotic or incoherent frequencies.” (David Stewart, The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple).
For example, all of the electrical devices in your home – lamps, television, radio, phone, microwave – emit electromagnetic vibrational frequencies. But they use AC (alternating current) electrical frequencies that are incoherent and chaotic. Their effect is to fracture the human electrical field.
By contrast, Dr. Rife’s frequency generator and most naturally occurring substances –including essential oils – have a coherent DC (direct current) frequency which resonates harmoniously with the electrical field of the human body.
 

The Healing Process and the Subtle Energy Nature of Essential Oils

The human body vibrating within its normal vibratory range between 62 and 68 MHz is considered in a state of health. But energy disturbances in the subtle bodies will actually precede the appearance of disease and illness in the physical body.
The normally harmonious coherent frequencies of the body easily go out of “tune” when a person experiences physical or emotional stress. A blockage of the flow of life energy – characterized by inflammation, irritation and illness – can result. When the human frequency range drops below the norm of 62 megahertz, this is when abnormal processes can begin to develop.
When disease and illness are present, they may manifest as chemical imbalances. But underlying this is an electromagnetic imbalance that has altered the specific vibrational frequencies of molecules, cells, tissues and organs within the body.
Properly “retuning” the body to its original frequency brings it into balance and restores its natural harmonic resonance – illness either doesn’t manifest or is resolved.
Dr. Richard Gerber MD, author of Vibrational Medicine, tells us that one of the best ways we can change dysfunctional patterns in our energy bodies is to administer therapeutic doses of “frequency-specific subtle energy in the form of vibrational medicines.”
And researcher Jim Oschman, PhD, who wrote Energy Medicine, refers to natural substances from the plant kingdom he calls “energetic pharmacology” (as distinguished from chemical pharmacology). Therapeutic grade essential oils produce coherent frequencies that are naturally tuned to the health of our bodies. Pharmaceuticals and synthetic oils do not.
The intention of this healing process is to provide the correct frequency that will bring the body back to a state of coherence, to a state of equilibrium. Terry Friedman, in his book, Freedom Through Health tells us that raising our vibrational frequency aids in “restoring health to the body, clarity to the mind and attunement to the spirit.”
By applying an essential oil with a particular frequency to the human body – through the principle of entrainment - the oil’s higher frequency will raise the vibratory quality of that individual. When several oils are blended together, each having a different MHz frequency, a frequency will emerge that may be higher or lower than the various components. The therapeutic properties create special vibrational remedies capable of healing or rebalancing the body/mind/soul/spirit.
And because each oil has a specific frequency, and our organs and body systems and the nutrients needed to maintain optimum health each have their specific frequencies, the oil's electrical affinity to these components of our bodies will enhance and support these organs and body systems, and will aid in the assimilation of nutrients.
Essential oils in the higher frequency ranges tend to influence the emotions. EOs in the lower frequencies have more effect on structural and physical changes, including cells, hormones, and bones, as well as viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
Essential oils don’t resonate with the toxins in our bodies. This incompatibility is what helps eliminate the toxins from our systems. Neither do they resonate with negative emotions. So they can help dislodge forgotten traumas by surfacing them in our consciousness where we can deal with them and let them go.
“Clinical research shows that essential oils have the highest frequency of any natural substance known to man, creating an environment in which disease, bacteria, virus, fungus, etc., cannot live. I believe that the chemistry and frequencies of essential oils have the ability to help man maintain the optimal frequency to the extent that disease cannot exist.”

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