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Cannabinoid Profiles - Thc, Thca, Thcv, Cbd, Cbg, Cbn, Cbc & Terpenes


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Acetaminophen, also known as Tylenol, is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain relief. But did you know that its compound’s pain fighting activity arises partially through its activity on the endocannabinoid system?


The acidic cannabinoids (THCA and CBDA) along with non-acidic CBD exhibit anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX’s). These enzymes are responsible for the production of pro-inflammatory factors called prostaglandins. This same inhibition occurs when an NSAID is taken.


Isn’t it ironic that cannabis, a compound that is significantly less toxic and harsh on the liver is illegal yet it acts on the same pathways as a commercial pain reliever? Here’s how it works:


The Prostaglandin Synthesis Pathway:


Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid. This compound is also the precursor for the synthesis of endogenous cannabinoids.


Acetaminophen Metabolism:


When acetaminophen is metabolized it results in a compound p-aminophenol that is conjugated to arachidonic acid to form N-Arachidonylphenolamine (also known as AM-404).




This compound is a CB1 receptor agonist and is partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Tylenol.

- See more at: http://sclabs.com/about-blog/item/61-tylenol-s-analgesic-effect-is-mediated-by-cannabinoid-receptors.html#sthash.vPWmvrtJ.dpuf

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Terpenes are volatile compounds produced by many plants, as well as some insects. Plants that produce terpenes often possess smells and flavors we find pleasing and are known as aromatic herbs. These aromatic plants have been used by cultures around the world, not only for perfumery and cooking, but also as medicine. The distinctive flavor and smell of each aromatic plant is caused by its unique blend of terpenes. 120 distinct terpenes are produced by the genus Cannabis, with the relative concentrations of the individual terpenes varying greatly among the 700 distinct strains currently in cultivation. Aside from taste and smell differences between varieties, this helps contribute to the broad diversity of potential medical applications of Cannabis. Laboratory experiments have shown that the full range of psychoactive and medical effects of Cannabis resin cannot be re-created simply with the use of pure cannabinoid type drugs like THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Marinol and Dronabinol, two drugs containing synthetic THC that have demonstrated limited medical benefits when compared with the use of Cannabis material containing the full range of cannabinoids and terpenes. These observations indicate that in addition to the psychoactive properties present in Cannabis resin, secondary components including terpenes are either psychoactive themselves, or are able to modulate or potentiate the affect of the cannabinoids when ingested in combination. GW Pharmaceuticals has invested extensive research into Cannabis based medicines, concluding that terpenes played a significant role in the effectiveness of the medication. GW is now manufacturing the most widely used medical marijuana product in the world an oral spray called Sativex, which contains a standardized mixture of Cannabis terpenes in addition to a mix of THC and CBD (Canabidiol).

From a chemical standpoint, terpenes are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons that make up a majority of plant resins and saps. The name “terpene” comes from turpentine, a terpene-based solvent distilled from pinesap. Essential oils, composed primarily of terpenes, have a long history of topical and internal medicinal use. Cannabinoids like THC are chemically classified as terpenoids, meaning they are derived from terpenes themselves. This explains the common practice among marijuana users of judging the quality of dried cannabis or hashish based largely on the quality and intensity of the smell. In high-THC cultivars, because the THC is made from terpenes, their content is usually correlated with psycho activity.

The resinous trichromes of the cannabis plant contain both the cannabinoids as well as the terpenes, which are constantly being replaced as they evaporate from the resin. The resin of high THC cannabis contains approximately 20 percent terpenes, and 50 percent cannabinoids by weight. The essential oil has traditionally been used as a treatment for skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis, as a topical antibiotic agent, and to increase circulation. In addition to these topical uses, it is now known that terpenes present in Cannabis do possess neurological effects, altering the production of the neurotransmitters seratonin and dopamine, as well as acting as type 2 cannabinoid receptor agonists. Another significant action when used in combination with cannabinoids is their ability to alter the permeability of both cell membranes and the blood/brain barrier, causing THC and other active cannabinoids to have a faster onset and more thorough absorption. Myrcene and several other terpenes are known to act as mixed agonist/antagonists of cannabinoid receptors, modulating the effects of THC in a similar fashion to CBD (cannabidiol). cannabishealthnewsmagazine.com

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Scientific Name(s): Pinus palustris Mill. and several other species and varieties of Pinus . Family: Pinaceae


Common Name(s): Turpentine , gum turpentine , gum thus , turpentine oil , turpentine balsam




Turpentine has been used experimentally in a bath for the treatment of disseminated sclerosis and sexual dysfunction. It also has been studied for its antibacterial activity and inhibition of osteoclast activity. Turpentine is utilized in experimental models of inflammation to induce a systemic inflammatory immune response in animals.



If ingested, turpentine is highly toxic and fatal poisonings have been reported in children who have ingested as little as 15 mL of the material. 3


The term “turpentine” is used imprecisely to describe either the oleoresin obtained from the longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris Mill.) or the slash pine ( P. elliottii Engelm.) along with other Pinus species that yield exclusively terpene oils, or the essential oil obtained from the above oleoresin. 1 More than a half-dozen additional Pinus species have been used in the production of turpentine. 4 The oleoresin is sometimes referred to as “gum turpentine” while turpentine or its oil (also known as spirits of turpentine) are terms for the essential oil.


Following steam distillation, gum turpentine yields turpentine oil and a resin called colophony (also known as rosin). Alternately, rosin is collected by scarring the tree trunk, and then various grades of material are refined. 4 Turpentine and rosin also are obtained by the steam distillation of pinewood chips that are by-products of the lumber and paper industries, and these sources currently account for the bulk of their production.


In terms of volume, turpentine is the largest volume-essential oil product in the world, with the bulk of production occurring in the United States. The labor-intensive production of rosin, however, occurs to a greater extent in Spain, Greece, India, and Morocco.




The primary use of turpentine has been as a solvent in paints. During the last century, it became an important starting material for the commercial synthesis of many widely used compounds, including camphor and menthol. Various products derived from turpentine have been used in chewing gums, and steam-distilled turpentine oil has been used as a food and beverage flavoring in very small quantities (typically about 20 ppm). Turpentine and its related products have a long history of medicinal use primarily as topical counterirritants for the treatment of rheumatic disorders and muscle pain. A gum derived from turpentine was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve the pain of toothaches. Other extracts (including the semi-synthetic derivative terpin hydrate) have been used for the treatment of cough and cold symptoms; 5 the cis-form of terpin hydrate is used as an expectorant. 6


A variety of gum and resin products had been derived from pines for use in the early naval industry as tars and pitches. Consequently the terms “wood naval stores” and “gum naval stores” came to be associated with these pine-derived products. 4




Turpentine is composed primarily of monoterpene hydrocarbons, the most prevalent of which are the pinenes, camphene, and 3-carene. Rosin contains mostly diterpene resin acids, such as abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, palustric acid, and isopimaric acid. Numerous other compounds are present in small quantities in all turpentine products.


Canada turpentine or Canada balsam is an oleoresin obtained from the stems of the balsam fir, Abies balsamea (Family Pinaceae).


Uses and Pharmacology


Turpentine and its related products (the oil and rosin) are important in commerce and traditional medicine. These products can pose a toxicity problem and should be handled and stored carefully. Literature primarily documents turpentine being utilized in experimental models of inflammation to induce a systemic inflammatory immune response in animals drugs.com

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