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The Future Looks Bleak?

So every day I read more and more about dispensaries, and government this and that.. LEOs hate this law due to lack of funding stemming from Marijuana arrests..   I was theorizing this morning with a buddy of mine..   I can see it now, the Government run dispensaries will cancel out our rights to grow our own, which in turn will put a halt to the "legal home grow" That will satisfy LEO cause they will now be able to raid each suspected home that has a grow and seize all the equipment and still get to charge you with a cannabis related charge. seems to be looking up for the big guys imo..   They get to corner the MM market, and seeing as it wont be legal to grow your own anymore they know 40-60% of people have involvement in growing they have a huge new group of Marijuana users to target to hit their quota.. I'm not excited about the future at all   All this belly aching about your precious dispensaries is going to ruin everything for alot of people that just want to get by and not have to go through another fiasco run by the government the same people that have no idea wtf is good or bad.. its all about the money $$   Is it REALLLLLLY that hard to find some herb, the stuff thats been around since the beginning of freaking time?? Can't they setup a web based program that makes it easy like a click of the button kind of stuff for the real square/newbie. Kinda like buying insurance you have a site setup with CG's the new pt goes through finds your ad that fits what your looking for and move along????   Sorry my rant is out of frustration, I just have this nasty feeling that the police and suits will get their way.. and Marijuana arrests will be here to stay.. legal or not.

trix

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Walking On The Wild Side

9 days and counting until HFM's annual Walkin' on the Wild Side for Hemophilia event. Net proceeds of this event will support HFM's programs and services for men, women and children with bleeding disorders.   Walkin' on the Wild Side for Hemophilia takes place on Sunday, August 25, 2013 at the Detroit Zoo. Registration begins at 7:45a, the Walk starts at 8:45a. There will be raffles, lots of kids crafts, face painting, family photo booth, a strolling magician and local accapella group, THUMMp, will perform. 93.9 The River will be onhand providing music. Walkin' on the Wild Side for Hemophilia is fun for all ages!   Everyone is encouraged to form a team. Remember, the bigger the team, the better! Our goal in 2013 is $100,000 raised and 1,000 walkers. So far, over $66,500 has been raised. Let's see if we can break $70,000 this weekend.   Registration fee of $15 per person gets you all day admission to the zoo, entertainment, refreshments and a Walk t-shirt, including children's sizes. Children under 2 are free. Please keep in mind this is a fundraiser and there are costs associated with the event.   In addition, for every contribution of $100 made, the individual donor's name will be put in a drawing for three exciting prizes! Prizes include: MacBook Air Laptop, Android Tablet, and iPod Touch and wireless speakers. Winners will be drawn immediately after the Walk ends at 10:30a. Winners need not be present. Donate to your favorite team, walker or directly to HFM online or mail your donations to HFM by Wednesday, August 21 to be considered for the drawing. Donations made after that date will NOT be included.   If you are interested in supporting our Walk, please contact Dawn Evans at dawn@hfmich.org or 800-482-3041.           Source: Walking On The Wild Side

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From: 8 Heroin Ods In Washtenaw County In 2 Days

Officials: 8 heroin ODs in Washtenaw County in 2 days   Saline — Police and medical officials in Washtenaw County are reporting eight heroin overdoses, including one death, over a two-day span. A 27-year-old Saline man died last week after Huron Valley Ambulance personnel attempted to revive him for 30 minutes.   AnnArbor.com says seven others were hospitalized. The overdoses came from Saline, Pittsfield Township, Ypsilanti, Ypsilanti Township and Ann Arbor. Huron Valley Ambulance spokeswoman Joyce Williams says the rash of overdoses “had some eyebrows raising.”   Officials said last year heroin was becoming an “epidemic” in Washtenaw County, and the recent two-day snapshot appears the trend isn’t slowing down just yet. From The Detroit News: http://www.detroitnews.com/article/20130611/METRO/306110029#ixzz2WOthbLGF      

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How Can I Tell If My Cannabis Plant Is Over Or Under-Watered?

Over-watered vs. under-watered marijuana: how can I tell if my cannabis plant is over or under-watered?   A common question for new cannabis growers is how to tell if your drooping cannabis is over or under-watered. It's common for new growers to over-water their weed, but that doesn't mean that under-watering doesn't happen too. Never fear, it's easy to tell how often you should be feeding your plant and what is the true cause of your drooping.     An over watered cannabis plant will have leaves that are full of water, so the leaves will be firm to the touch and generally curling down (even from the stem of the leaf) almost as if it has too much water weight to hold the leaf out straight.   Over-watered cannabis plant leaves are firm & curled   An under watered cannabis plant will have leaves that are brittle, limp, and lifeless. The leaves will seem to be drooping but won't appear as rounded and full as an over watered cannabis plant.   Under-watered cannabis plant leaves are limp and lifeless   Click for more pictures (and more info) for Over-Watered Cannabis and Under-Watered Cannabis   How often should I be feeding my cannabis plants?   You will want to water your marijuana whenever the top of the growing medium starts feeling dry. You should stick your finger 1-2" into the soil. If things feel damp, you should wait to water again. If it's dry then you know it's time to feed your plant.   This will start out with you watering your marijuana every couple of days when they're seedlings, and may end up with you watering them once a day towards the end of the marijuana flowering cycle. You want to ensure that you have about 20-30% extra run-off water come out the bottom of the container every time you water your plants. The reason for this is that growing mediums such as soil and coco coir tend to form natural salts and concentrated pockets of nutrients (which can burn your plant) if it the fertilizers just sit in there and never get washed out. Making sure you keep adding water until you get run-off is also a great way to make sure that your marijuana plants are draining properly. If your marijuana shows signs of drooping, chances are you are over or under-watering. In order to prevent over or under-watering, make sure you water thoroughly every time, and wait to water again until the top inch of growing medium (soil, coco coir, soilless mix, etc) feels dry.   http://www.growweedeasy.com/drooping-over-water-cannabis-vs-under-water-cannabis

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Anyone Else Ever Have To Deal W/ This?

So yeah, Like most of us here on the forum I suffer with a pretty high degree of pain and have next to no outlet to relieve that symptoms that cause the pain. So I started going to the gym to try and atleast get my body in shape seeing as its falling apart and changing colors in front my eyes..   Anywho I was kinda seeking some personal experinces from others on how they dealt with or what regime was taken to be able to continue working out, But not experince the extreme delayed pain that comes with it? I'm not sore ANYWHERE but my lower back where my pain exsist currently...   I have really had back problems for some time, surgery on my shoulders 5 yrs ago, Severed Long thoratic Nerve goes under the left shoulder blade witch causes extreme winging off my Blade, have issues with disks L-4,L5,L3 - S1.. hurniated and bulging.. I don't use heavy weights I know it keep it light with low reps and increase. I gained alot of stregh no doubt by what I have done thus far but just can't seem to shake the pain.. Not knowing if its helping or hurting.. But it feels so good when I'm doing it.. Thanks for listening   How'd you do it?   Trix

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The Policy For The Mmma Forums, From Michael Komorn

Simple as 1,2,3 - Will be the new policy for the MMMA forums   So much ado has been made at our attempt to provide a reasonable policy for posting on the forums. Much debate has been had amongst the moderator staff and on the forums amongst our members. As is often the case and even more so on the Internet, communication and semantics are critical when trying to develop a consistent but clear policy regarding the Act that can be enforced easily and without issue. The unambiguous policy to date has created some confusion when its intent was just the opposite. Additionally and without merit many of the moderators have been under attack for attempting to enforce a policy that is designed only to protect patients from arrest, prosecution or penalty. The reference to Nazis is offensive and reflects an absolute lack of knowledge of history, common sense, and humanity. The comparison of anything the moderators do on this site to the devastation the Nazis did in world history is blatant ignorance.   Let it be stated now, and made very clear that the MMMA does not believe that the proper interpretation of the law would prohibit any of the behavior that may fall into the so called ambiguous zone. The MMMA believes that the Act should be interpreted liberally, and with the sole purpose of protecting patients and caregivers. Further the MMMA does not believe that dispensaries, farmers markets, any registered caregiver transfers to any registered patient or patient to patient transfers are unlawful. In fact the MMMA believes and acknowledges that all of these acts and behaviors are critical and essential for the medical cannabis community to survive and flourish. Why then would the MMMA attempt to create a policy that purports to limit this behavior? The answer is simple, we are not!   What are we trying to do then? The MMMA is simply trying to provide advice and direction for patients and caregivers to avoid arrest, and be forced to defend themselves in court. It is that simple.   Perhaps as simple as 1, 2, 3.   Simple as 1, 2, 3 will be the new policy for the MMMA forums.   The behavior of patients and caregivers will be and should be assessed by a ranking of risk and liability scored by Level 1 risk, Level 2 risk, and Level 3 risk.   Ask yourself the following question: is there a consistent and unequivocal interpretation of the behavior by patients and caregivers that LEO would agree is lawful? Said another way, would the behavior in question result in an arrest if you asked all LEO statewide? The focus here is not what the MMMA wants; the focus here is not what the MMMA believes the proper interpretation of the act should be. The focus here is not what LEO in your local community says is lawful. Instead the operative question is how do all Leo state wide interpret the act and what do they believe is unlawful behavior?   Is there a consistent and unequivocal interpretation of the behavior by patients and caregivers that LEO would agree is lawful?   If the answer is yes you are in a Level 1 Risk category and should be protected against arrest, prosecution, or any penalty.   All other behavior outside of this definition falls into Level 2 and 3 risk categories. Level 2 and 3 behavior is not unlawful per se, but is behavior that may subject you to a higher risk or liability of arrest. The key here is that the MMMA is not calling this behavior unlawful.   The Level 2 and 3 behavior however is behavior which may not without equivocation protect you from arrest, prosecution, or any penalty, although the MMMA believes it should. Those seeking information and guidance from our site need to know that your protections do not include immunity from arrest. Instead your protections will come via the affirmative defense set out in section 8 of the Act.   For those that are not aware, the Act is set up with 2 different levels of protection. There is a section 4 protection which is immunity from arrest prosecution or any penalty. Immunity means that after interacting with LEO, you are released without incident, no arrest takes place, medicine, money, and property is not confiscated. You are not handed an "intent to forfeit" document that requires you to post bond for your property. Immunity means you go home; you kiss your significant other on the lips when you get home and you thank the stars above that you are sleeping in your own bed instead of the concrete floor of the local county jail.   Then there is a section 8 protection, which is an affirmative defense. These protections are as real and as important as the protections of section 4, but they occur in a completely different environment that is important to distinguish. The section 8 affirmative defense will take place in Court, before a Judge at an evidentiary hearing (first). This game will start with you waking up from the concrete floor of the county jail. It will include eating bologna sandwiches for breakfast, the mustard jar will have something that looks like an infection growing on of the top. It will have been at least 24 hours since you spoke to your family (72 hours is the maximum), and the return to your normal life will not yet begin until you post bond, get your car out of the lot, which will cost you at least $1000. Then you will have approximately 15 days to post bond on the forfeiture case. This amount is usually 10% of the total value of the property seized. Consider the forfeiture matter a second case, one that will put the burden on you to establish that the items sought to be forfeited were acquired through lawfully earned funds. Lawfully earned funds could be a definition that is in controversy in your forfeiture case.   After the arraignment in your criminal case, usually done by video while you remain in the jail cell, you will be on bond. The conditions will likely include no use of medical cannabis while on bond. You will have to hire an attorney or rely upon the experience of the local court appointed attorney's knowledge of the MMMA. After many months of your case pending and when you find yourself at your evidentiary hearing for your section 8 defense much ado will be made about your bona fide relationship with your certifying doctor. "Is my doctor willing to come to court?" is a good question to ask yourself when engaging in Level 2 and 3 behaviors. Remember if your doctor is not your treating physician, in some jurisdictions you may fail to establish the first prong of section 8. Although the MMMA believes this is wrong, this is how it has played out in many jurisdictions. Awareness of these distinctions is all that is being sought by the MMMA.   The point here is that the different levels of protection between section 4 and section 8 are significant; with the most important factor being one protects you from arrest (Section 4) while the other (Section 8) protects you from conviction in court. The previous policy and guidance provided on the forums for our members has merely embraced a policy to avoid arrest, or Level 1 risk behavior. Moving forward the key factor that will and should be expressed will be to point out and make known what behavior falls into the category that is a Level 1 risk that protects you from arrest, prosecution and any penalty versus what behavior is a Level 2 or 3 risk that offers its protections pursuant to section 8 in court.   No one at the MMMA wants to be responsible for advising behavior that results in a patient or caregiver being arrested. Likewise no one at the MMMA believes patients or caregivers should be arrested. But we are living in a time when the Peoples' law has yet to be implemented as it was intended. There remain many different interpretations throughout the state that are not consistent or absolutely clear, to the extent that all LEO would agree. For example see the twisted interpretation of Court of Appeals cases from the "Legal Updates at the Michigan State   Police," website regarding medical marihuana.** Please note that the MMMA disagrees with these interpretations, but would be acting neglectful if we did not point out these simple facts for our community. We are not taking responsibility for how LEO currently thinks, we disagree with it and have been and will continue to try to change how they think. In the meantime, we are simply reporting it for the benefit and protection of the medical cannabis community.   **   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._99_390580_7.pdf   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._96_382986_7.pdf   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._91_370314_7.pdf   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._89_362839_7.pdf   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._78_276204_7.pdf   http://www.michigan.gov/documents/msp/MSP_Legal_Update_No._69_259822_7.pdf     Soon a day will come when we can all laugh about this but in the interim our community and those that post on the MMMA forums and our membership needs to be made aware and be informed. More importantly they need to act with knowledge, caution, and understanding the various levels of risk associated with the behavior they choose to engage in.   With that being said what once was called the unambiguous compliance policy, or behavior that would conform to those principals has been morphed into what will now be described as Level 1 risk behavior. Strict compliance with section 4 of the act is what will be advised to all who care to listen, as the type of behavior that has the lowest degree of risk of arrest. Everything else is Level 2 or 3 risk. That is to say if an encounter with law enforcement occurs the level of risk of being arrested, and being forced to defend yourself in court is higher. Is Level 2 and 3 risk behavior lawful? I personally think so, but who cares what I think. The analysis here is what we know of how LEO sees it collectively throughout the state. It may not be that way in your jurisdiction and it may be that way for a very good reason, but until all LEO acknowledge it as so, that behavior is just simply of higher risk. Please notice that nowhere in any of this analysis is the word unlawful or illegal used we are simply pointing out that there may be a higher risk of a negative outcome.   So please understand, that no one at the MMMA wants to impede the success of the medical cannabis community growing and thriving, we just want those that care to listen to understand the difference of how the Act is being interpreted by LEO,the courts, and the impact it is having on patients and caregivers.   Knowledge of these distinctions will make for a better understanding of how the lines have been drawn temporarily by the courts and law enforcement, and give our community proper notice of the risks that they may be taking when engaging in the medical use of cannabis.   In closing I hope this helps clear up some of the confusion created earlier, and we all look forward to your input and an educated discussion which evolves this community.     Thank you for your support and understanding.   Michael Komorn   President of the MMMA
 

Marijuana Growing Guide Free Library Helps Everyone Learn How To Grow Marijuana Plant

Marijuana Growing Guide Free Library   Marijuana Growing Guide Free Library helps everyone learn how to grow marijuana plant hydroponics. Welcome, the spirit is to help medicinal cannabis patients and horticulturalists grow the most potent marijuana plants legally possible. Growing marijuana indoors in your own space, greenhouse or outdoor garden is not overly difficult but attention to detail is needed. You will find only the best online information on marijuana seeds, germination, marijuana plant sexing, marijuana growing equipment of today, hydroponic techniques, indoor cultivation, outdoor cultivation, troubleshooting plus a whole lot more. Learn something new and improved to help you do grow better ganja. Use the Grow Guide Index to find specifics on how to grow marijuana right away. Enjoy the best reading library with your favorite big phat joint.   Growing Marijuana Tips of the Month: Keep enriching your cannabis plants with fresh air even until the end of harvest, it increases growth rate, hastens maturity and increases yield. Adequate ventilation cycles are a must, weed loves routine.
Change your grow lights every year, the color spectrum effectiveness diminishes over time.
Don't put old HID bulbs in new electronic and digital ballasts, it'll work but the bulb will fail faster, their incompatible, find the new lights made for the new ballast.
Try a few different new fertilizers on a few of your plants to figure out the best fertilizer for your grow garden.
When growing hydroponic marijuana use Ph meters, it's important to have the right measurement.
Don't wait for color change, use a microscope to see when your plant is ready for harvest, it should have 2/3 balls on the tops of the crystals of THC.
Don't go into your grow room during the night cycle, leave it alone.
When cutting your plants make sure you sterilize your scissors or clippers, wash your hands regularly, bacteria and fungus contamination is easy. Some growers are now using a fungicide on seeds before and during the germination process.
Marijuana Growing Advancements: A growing light revolution has been going on for a few years now, as seen with birth of electronic and digital ballasts which are more compact, weigh less, consume less energy, delivering more efficient energy, create less heat, and save money.
Once you understand the marijuana leaf's absorption percentage of each color spectrum, you'll appreciate the ability to customize the light spectrum delivered to your plants in every stage of growth.
The world's first real digital bulbs are now being designed and hopefully perfected in the near future.
Feminized marijuana genetics refers to a cannabis plant that will not produce any male aspects.
Top Quality Growing DVD: An excellent step by step DVD video helps those who aren't into reading books and want to know how to grow marijuana. How to convert a small room into a dream garden of weed. It's all there from lighting to nutrients to harvesting. DVDs are educational and entertaining at a great price. Once we watched it we had to start growing cannabis right away.You can find resources such as this on YouTube, or buy simply purchashing something online or at your local grow supply stores.   Growing Marijuana New Additions to the Library   New additions to the growing marijuana free library can help beginners to professional farmers. There's tons of free information on the internet, we'll try to fine tune the selections presented to you. Remember medicinal marijuana is now lawful in certain parts of over 29 countries around the world, our green team hopes this legal ganja library is helpful.   Dehumidifying Your Marijuana Growing Room | Increasing Marijuana Yield | Regenerating Harvested Marijuana Plants Organic Marijuana | Curing and Trimming     Grow Guide Index   Indoor Marijuana Cultivation Indoor Marijuana Cultivation Guide Indoor Marijuana Outdoor Marijuana Cultivation Simple Steps For Outdoor Marijuana Growers Phases of the Moon for Marijuana Growing Growing Marijuana Outdoors Hydroponics Hydroponics 101 Marijuana Hydroponics Why Grow Hydroponic Weed Hydroponics Should Be Easy Marijuana Hydroponic Systems Marijuana Hydroponic Principles Quick Marijuana Hydroponic Garden Set Up Troubleshooting Marijuana Plant Abuse Female and Feminized Seed Cannabis Nutrient Disorders Nutrient and Deficiency Table Troubleshooting Marijuana Health Problems Ten Biggest Mistakes Marijuana Growers Make What Type Of Lamp To Use General Information Basics to Marijuana Planting Basic Marijuana Information How To Build A Marijuana Grow Box Marijuana Growing Tips Preparing to Grow Marijuana Marijuana Seeds Germination Sexing Marijuana Plants Cannabis Life Cycle Marijuana Potency How To Grow Marijuana - and Why Indoor and Outdoor Garden Security Guide To Growing Marijuana Closet Marijuana Growing Guide Complete Marijuana Closet Set Up Pot Seeds Growing Pot Marijuana Grower's Guide Gorilla Growers Guide Dutch Grow Room Visuals How to Grow Marijuana Topping, Pruning and Bending Cannabis Breeding Marijuana Specific Information History of Cannabis Cloning Marijuana Germinating Marijuana Choosing Marijuana Seeds Rockwool The Book Kale Marijuana Growing Guide Cannabis Growing Guide Advanced Growing Marijuana Guide The Home Marijuana Creator When To Harvest Marijuana Marijuana Definitions for Growers Marijuana Botany When To Harvest Marijuana Increasing Marijuana Yield Lighting Types and Intensities Grow Light Guide PH and EC Meters PH Facts Marijuana THC Transport and Logistics of the Marijuana Plant Growing Haze Marijuana Tips on Growing Good Marijuana Plants   Disclaimer: This domain is for research, education and general information. Everyone must use the information found in this domain for legal purposes only. No one is urged to do anything illegal, this domain is not responsible for any 3rd party actions. Be Safe Stay under your legal amounts, and follow the law as written to avoid and possibly legal risks.   Trix   Source: Marijuana Growing Guide Free Library Helps Everyone Learn How To Grow Marijuana Plant

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Beauty Or Aroma Or Taste?

Lets hear you input on the subject, this could very well help guide new patients form a conclusion on what the majority of the community looks for when they use marijuana for the first time!   Whats more important, Beauty or aroma and flavor, how about the potency of the medication where does that fall in the mix?   Buzz length, type, strain, anything of the sort. Let hear your thoughts,   Would you rather have a really ugly bud with great smell and taste…. Or a beautiful flower covered in glistening trich that smells and tastes like dog poo? Opinion question. Whats more important? Beauty or aroma and flavor?   Me personaly I love a beautiful looking bud, something that everyone wants to get a glance at when I open my bag.. BUT......I always seems to steer towards a strain that has that 'Taste' that you just can't describe w/o tasting it yourself.. As for Buzz Lengh It is a big part of which Meds I choose to use and when I use that strain, I don't always prefer that gorgeous bud that smells awesome but puts me in a couch lock state for hours and hours. Thats not always a positive for myself.. I choose TASTE!   What about you guys what are your thoughts on this subject, buzz, beauty, taste, smell, strengh?   Trix       Source: Beauty Or Aroma Or Taste?

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What To Know When Relying On A Affirmative Defense, Do You Qualify?

Think you're in the clear to rely on just a certification or recommendation and employ the affirmative defense after the recent Sup Ct opinions in King and Kolanek? Thing again!   If that is your plan, to rely on your certification or recommendation, then you may be in for some trouble and a rude awakening. So let's clear this up so you make an informed decision.   First off, if you don't have a card and are relying on your certification only then plan on being arrested. Plan on spending up to 48 hours in jail before be arraigned and bond being set. Then plan on either getting a court appointed attorney or spending a lot on a retained attorney.   Then what? Well, if it's a felony you're charged with, then expect to go to your preliminary examination. If the judge there will hear your aff def then maybe s/he will dismiss the case. But maybe not. If not, then plan on going to circuit court. It is there that your attorney will file and argue the aff def. Expect to either subpoena your doctor to testify (and tinkle him off) or expect to pay him as an expert witness. Also expect to be able to prove that you needed x ounces (or plants) to ensure a continuing supply.   Lastly, and most importantly, be prepared for proving the heightened requirements of the sec 8 defense. Keep in mind that the administrative rules require less of a Dr for the certification than sec 8 requires for an aff. def. What does that mean? It means that you could end up in circuit court with a signed cert or card and still be convicted.   The administrative rules state:   (22) “Written certification” means a document signed by a physician stating the patient’s debilitating medical condition and stating that, in the physician’s professional opinion, the patient is likely to receive therapeutic or palliative benefit from the medical use of marihuana to treat or alleviate the patient’s debilitating medical condition or symptoms associated with the debilitating medical condition.   That written certification is what is needed for a card under section 4.   On the other hand, Section 8 requires:   (1) A physician has stated that, in the physician's professional opinion, after having completed a full assessment of the patient's medical history and current medical condition made in the course of a bona fide physician-patient relationship, the patient is likely to receive therapeutic or palliative benefit from the medical use of marihuana to treat or alleviate the patient's serious or debilitating medical condition or symptoms of the patient's serious or debilitating medical condition;   So section 8 requires a full assessment of the patient's history whereas the rules don't require that for a card. Section 8 also requires the bona fide dr/pt relationship but that seems a foregone conclusion if a dr signs the certification.   At any rate a bare bones section 4 certification probably isn't adequate to cover for a section 8 defense. So if you have your card and are relying on that, or a recommendation or certification, make darn sure that your Dr made a full assessment of your history. In other words, a few months of medical records may be adequate for a card but not so much for a sec 8 defense.   So what does all this mean? It means you should make sure you get that full assessment of your history and make sure you have a bona fide relationship (don't buy a cert. from the back of an appliance store!)   Lastly, to qualify all of this, I will concede that sec 4f requires the same thing as sec 8 in order for a doctor to be immune from prosecution but those elements in sec 8 are not all required to get the card anywhere else. So, a doc may lose his immunity from prosecution for not conducting a full assessment of your history BUT that doesn't mean you wouldn't be entitled to a card. In other words there is a hypothetical situation where a doc could certify you and you get your card and your card is valid but the doc isn't immune from prosecution.   The point here is don't be tricked into thinking you are safe and able to utilize sec 8 just because you have a card or a cert. I can easily see this being the next bone that the prosecutors pick if we start seeing sec 8 defenses!   Lastly, don't be naive and think that you can scream sec 8 and the prosecutors will drop everything. I personally have seen prosecutors continue to pursue cases that were bound to be dismissed due to constitutional violations. They won't come out and say it but I think it is clear that they feel if they make the defendant pay through the nose to the atty by drawing out the case then that is punishment in itself even if the case is later dismissed.   There is more to sec 8 than the issues presented here but you need to be mindful of the presented issues in particular. Will prosecutors accept the card or a cert or recommendation as fulfilling the medical and dr requirements of sec 8? Maybe. In fact I'm sure a lot would but don't be the one fighting this exact issue and left holding the bag for 3 years as it is appealed up to the Sup Ct.   If you have your card and think it wouldn't hurt to grow 2 more plants and expect your card will cover for you in regard to the medical requirements of sec 8 then at least be sure you have covered yourself in regard to ALL of the elements required in sec 8.   All members of this site or anyone looking in seeking advice should spend some quality time reading the following materials in depth:   1) The Supreme Court decisions 2) The ballot language 3) Sections 7 and 8 of the Act   Rather than reading them to develop arguments to defend what you are doing as legal, read them instead in a naive way, or even in a prejudiced way. If you are in compliance with a naive reading of the law, and are erroneously arrested, you will have a great case in court if you also stay silent during the arrest. If you intend to depend on section 8 to defend yourself in court should the unthinkable happen, make sure that you understand how law enforcement and the courts will read it.   These are basic parameters for staying safe and responsible to the community for more than 90% of participants. Those who have an attorney on retainer should be strictly adhering to the interpretation of their attorney, especially if the intent is to lean on the protections contained within section 8, which at this point REQUIRE ARREST AND PROSECUTION to invoke.     Source: If You May Need To Rely On The Affirmative Defense Just Be Sure You Qualify First.

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Member Of Our Community John Wells, Loses Everything To A Tragic Fire

John Wells suffered a house fire last Tuesday. He and his wife and their young daughter have lost everything.   The fire was started within their refrigerator. They have little support and are truly in need of help, living out of their fifth wheel behind the burned out hulk of their home until their homeowners insurance rebuilds it.   Insurance will not cover any additional expenses at this time and gas and other expenses are mounting. I am posting to ask the community to lend their support.   For those who don't know him, John has been an active and involved member of the medical marijuana community for years. He has been involved locally and has made many trips to Lansing and around the state speaking to municipalities on his own dime, speaking on our behalf.   He is an eloquent and effective speaker and has been an ambassador of the law, representing us well. John has always supported fellow patients in time of need. He has been to many court cases around the state.   We know the Wells' personally and they are really good people and have given so much to their community that it makes me emotional to know that his family is sleeping in what is no more than a tent in their backyard while having to look out out their burned home.   John had just taken out a 25,000 loan to remodel..and his house was insured for 50,000..so the first 25,000 goes directly to the bank..and they lost absolutely everything they own. Staying in 5th wheel behind burned home..with only basic needs..and clothes they had on there backs day of fire.   Please send fund to Mrs. Wells PayPal account, I can't figure out how to set up a page so it sends money directly to them, just non profit organizations..If your donating to this cause please let Red Cross know that the funds are for the Wells' family here is their personal account info;   You can send money directly to John's wife's PayPal account it is Jolynneone@gmail.com.   Thank you all so much for listening, and please pray for Mr. and Mrs Well's and their daughter tonight and the following days to come.   This is the link to send donations direct to an email address via paypal:   https://www.paypal.com/webapps/mpp/send-money-online   Just plug in your email address, John's wife's email address (jolynneone@gmail.com), the amount you wish to donate, and it will walk you through the rest.   Another route if your not familiar with PayPal, Here is their address to send a check or money order,   John Wells PO Box 12 Lewiston, MI 49756   Again, the situation is dire. To my knowledge, only 2 people have made a donation to date. Please join us in helping this family.

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Mmma Monthly Coffee Hour Meetings W/ The Staff

Have you heard about the Coffee Hours that the MMMA Staff will be holding each and every month to help the community with questions and answers that they have and also meet and greet the Leaders of the orginization well heres you shot! Here is a list, That explains about the hours and days, as well as the locations where these events will be taking place. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   MMMA staff will be holding in-person meetings, with coffee, twice each month. These meetings will be used to discuss planning for projects, events, and anything the staff or membership wishes to talk about.   These meetings will take place on the first and last Mondays of each month at 11:00 am.   The last Monday of each month (coming up next week), this meeting will be held in Clawson at the National Coney Island, 1331 W. Maple.   The first Monday of each month, the meeting will be held in Lansing at the Gone Wired Cafe, 2021 E. Michigan Ave.   Hope you can make it!       Source: Mmma Monthly Coffee Hour Meetings W/ The Staff
 

The Past Present And Future Of The Mmma (the Act).

Planet Green Trees Episode 100th Episode, The Past Present and Future of the MMMA (the Act).   This show is dedicated to a recap of the past three years of the mm program in Michigan. We intend to have the most influential players chime in on their views and analysis from the past three years, the current state of affairs, and what the future holds for our community. This will be a special show, and we plan to cover everything that is medical cannabis.   All the Big Hitters chime in and provide their view and analysis for our medical cannabis community.   Special guest: Neil Rockind of Rockind PLLC Daniel Grow and John Targowski of Targowski and Grow, More Lawyers pending, and all the other big hitters and legal pundits Eric VanDussen. More to follow..   Big Give Away- 4 foot by 8 bulb t-5 fluorescent fixture for your Veg room, including rope ratchets ($ 260.00). Mention the 100th episode at Green Thumb garden Center and get a 25 discount and a free gift through the end of the month.     http://www.blogtalkr...abis-radio-show   100TH EPISODE: SPECIAL 2.5 HOUR SHOW!!   Thursday 6/21 12: 8-10:30 p.m.   Call in Number 1(347)326-9626 (dial 1 to get on the air).     Your host: Attorney Michael Komorn of KomornLaw Regular guests: Chad from the Birmingham Compassion Club, Gersh *Peanut Butter* for Cannabis Cancer Project, Rick Thompson reporting on news events, Jamie Lowell of Third Coast Compassion Center, and recovering patient Mike "Red Dog" McShane, ChrisTiana Starr, Kristine Beebe, Jamie Frickie.   Tonight's Show Sponsored By: MMMA: michiganmedicalmarijuana.org Thanks to all the moderators Komorn Law - Atty Michael Komorn (800) 656-3557 Green Thumb Garden Center of Ferndale (248) 439-1851     Source: The Past Present And Future Of The Mmma (the Act).
 

Marijuana Book Will Feature 100 Authors - Maybe Including You?

So you've always wanted to write a book about cannabis? Here's your chance.   You're invited to participate in an iBook project intended to change perceptions about marijuana by telling 100 short stories by 100 real people, in a fun and easy-to-read format.   Each page will be formatted the same way. The top of the page will have your name, or a title if you prefer. Then there is space for an image, a gallery of images, a video, a Powerpoint presentation, an HTML widget... "The possibilities are endless," said Susan Soares, president of VibeNation MultiMedia, which is sponsoring the project, called Marijuana & Me.   "The purpose of the book is to change the perception of what the typical marijuana consumer is like," Soares told Toke of the Town Thursday afternoon.   Susan Soares, VibeNation MultiMedia: "The purpose of the book is to change the perception of what the typical marijuana consumer is like" You'll have a maximum of 1,500 characters for your text.   VibeNation asks that you please make your marijuana story personal and true; your work may be edited. The top 100 stories will be chosen by popular vote.   The book will be available on iTunes, and the 100 authors will collectively own the iBook. With iTunes taking 30 percent of sales and VibeNation taking 10 percent for producing the book, the rest of the profits -- 60 percent -- will be equally split between the 100 authors.   You have six weeks to get your story together. The deadline for submissions is July 30, 2012. You can email Soares for more details at susan@vibenationmultimedia.com.   http://www.tokeofthe...ybe_in.php#more       Source: Marijuana Book Will Feature 100 Authors - Maybe Including You
 

Oregon's Largest Union Endorses Oregon Cannabis Tax Act

There's good news and bad news from the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act, OCTA 2012. The good: OCTA has received the endorsement and support of Oregon's largest private sector union, the United Food & Commercial Workers Union Local 555, and their 18,000-plus members. On Thursday, June 14, UFCW Local 555's board of directors voted unanimously to endorse the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act initiative.   "We are working with their leadership to mobilize their membership to sign and circulate the petitions," said OCTA 2012 sponsor Paul Stanford "Thank you UFCW Local 555!"     "Yesterday, with the UFCW's support, we mailed over 12,000+ letters to Oregon's most progressive voters, to people who have voted in every election for the last four years and that we have their phone number," Stanford said. "We were able to utilize the Oregon Democratic Party voter database to target people most likely to sign and return OCTA petitions.   The Weed Blog Paul Stanford, sponsor of OCTA 2012: "Our paid petition team continues to grow and improve" "With UFCW support, a professional phone bank has started to call the 13,500 voters in these 12,000-plus households to make sure they received our petitions and that they sign and mail them back right away," Stanford said. "The phone bank will call each household three times a day over this weekend and early next week, until they reach one of our mailed petition recipients and get their response."   From May 25 through June 15, OCTA 2012 gathered 30,000 more signatures, according to Stanford, who said the campaign had now gathered 135,000 total signatures. "We need 87,213 valid registered Oregon voters' signatures to turn in to the Oregon Secretary of State's office by Friday, July 6th to put OCTA on the November ballot," Stanford said.   "Our paid petition team continues to grow and improve. A team of four of us went to Salem last week to learn why petitions and signatures are being rejected," Stanford said. "Based upon this knowledge, we are now screening all petitions and all paid petitioners at their weekly turn-in to make sure that everything is properly filled out.   "Since a few other initiatives have concluded their petition drive, we have been able to hire other professional petition crews to gather OCTA signatures," Stanford said. "We have new crews of experienced petitioners in several locations throughout Oregon. If you see them, please show them some love."   The Bad News: More Than 40% Of Signatures Rejected   More than 40 percent of the signatures that OCTA submitted to the Oregon Secretary of State Elections Division have been invalidated, according to Stanford.   "Under Oregon law, we met the Secretary of State's early submission rule by having more than the minimum 87,213 signatures needed to qualify for a vote and submitted by their May 25th deadline," Stanford said. "That means that the state started to go through and validate the signatures submitted.   Of the 107,992 unverified OCTA signatures, 12,436 were rejected before the verification process, leaving 95,556 unverified signatures, according to Stanford.   "The vast majority of these were rejected due to circulator errors, such as not signing the circulator statement at the bottom of the sheet the way they had signed it on their state registration form, or not properly dating it, or from paid petitioners not being properly registered with the state when they were gathering signatures," Stanford said. "We also notified the state of circulator forgeries, and several paid petitioners are being prosecuted for forgery.   "From those 95,556 signatures that the Secretary of State said had been properly endorsed by the circulator, they ran a statistical sample of 5,001 signatures to determine the amount of valid signatures we turned in before May 25th," Stanford said. "They determined that 55,869 were found to be valid, for a validity of 58.47 percent."   According to Stanford, the state found 25 duplicates in their sample of 5,001 signatures. "Each duplicate found means that 400 signatures are statistically removed from the valid signature count," he said. This removed almost 10,000 signatures from the 95,556 signatures being validated.   The state then invalidated 29,687 more signatures because either they were not registered to vote, or they had moved when they signed, or the signature did not match the one on their voter registration card. Almost half of these were invalidated due to the state saying the voter had moved.   "We can litigate the state's determination of invalidity," Stanford said. "If the state says that in the end, next month in July, that we fell short, and we know that we should have qualified if not for improperly invalidated voters, such as those ten thousands removed due to circulator error, and/or the ten-plus thousands removed because the state says that the voter had moved, then we will go to court to make sure those signatures are counted.   "However, it is much better to just get more signatures and have the state say we qualified by the July 6th deadline with sufficient signatures to have OCTA put on the ballot for a vote this November," Stanford said. "We shall overcome. Restore hemp!"   Source: http://www.tokeofthe...is_tax.php#more     Source: Oregon's Largest Union Endorses Oregon Cannabis Tax Act
 

Phil Cavanagh " Off The Record " Interview, Future Of Marijuana

Representative Phil Cavanagh D - Redford, answers many questions about the future of marijuana legislation in Michigan. Cavanagh     A 15 minute post-show OVERTIME segment, continuing with Cavanagh:     When asked about a future dispensary bill, Cavanagh responds, "I think it's Callton's bill."   Which one, I wonder?       Source: Rep Phil Cavanagh Performs On "off The Record"

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Controversial Technique Increases Marijuana Yields...

Controversial Technique Increases Marijuana Yields... But At What Cost?   June 13, 2012, San Francisco, Ca - Medical marijuana is fast becoming a valuable cash crop as the plant known as Cannabis Sativa becomes accepted across the United States for medical uses like the treatment of cancer, AIDs, depression, anxiety, and many other ailments with few other effective treatments available. Medical Marijuana was recently legalized in the 17th state, Connecticut, and there are many more states with legislation in the works. In response, more people are growing medical marijuana at home and there has been a subsequent demand for growing information and guides. While there is lots of published literature on how to grow marijuana on a mass scale, for example in the case of huge grow operations, there remains a huge information gap for small-scale indoor marijuana growers. Considering that many states limit the amount of plants that a medical marijuana patient can have at once, many growers are looking for cheap ways to increase their yields without the need for more plants. In response to this need, many long-time growers are coming out of hiding to share their experiments and secrets to producing higher yields, in some cases without the need for additional costs or equipment. Long-time grower "Keef Treez" recently published a paper through GrowWeedEasy.com on the controversial marijuana growth control technique known as "defoliation" The paper, which showcases his 30 years of experience using this technique, claims to show growers how to obtain nearly a pound of processed buds from short, 3.5 feet tall plants that can easily fit in a closet, using standard 400-Watt HPS or LED grow lights. Sirius Fourside, another experienced grower who co-founded GrowWeedEasy.com and has published several marijuana grow guides himself, stated about the paper, "If you want to produce these kinds of yields with lower-electricity lights and keep short, manageable plants, defoliation has to be at least a part of the equation" Many growers refuse to try this simple and free technique out for themselves. Keef Treez claims he has shown up to grow conventions with extensive picture and physical evidence showing dramatic increases in yields with his technique, and still been booed off the stage by other growers who didn’t want to hear what he had to say. Nebula Haze said, "It’s sad that so many misguided growers are wasting hundreds or even thousands of dollars on equipment and electricity to try to increase their marijuana yields when there are cheap and free ways that are so much more effective. Defoliation has been extensively tested and documented as a way to increase yields not just for marijuana but many other types of crops like chickpeas. Once I heard about this free technique and used it to obtain significant 30-40% increases in marijuana yields for myself (about 3-5 extra ounces harvested per plant using just defoliation), I knew I needed to get this information out to other patients with an open mind. People need to start looking at the evidence instead of just following old, outdated dogma"     follow up and info from link to paper on the technique   http://growweedeasy....iation-tutorial   (Experienced Growers Only) Controversial Defoliation Increases Marijuana Yields     by Keef Treez "The Defoliator" Defoliation is an extreme marijuana growth technique. It's not to be done lightly. In fact, the topic of defoliation is one of the most controversial subjects in the marijuana growing field. People on both sides defend their position vehemently. I'm on the side that believe there is absolutely nothing stressful about defoliation or bending branches. Honestly, there is no way to achieve nearly a pound of buds from a 2-3 foot tall plant indoors, except using defoliation. Opponents often have arguments like, "PLANTS NEED THOSE LEAVES! If they didn't, they wouldn't be there." Or my all-time favorite, "I have a friend who used to grow, and he insists that will hurt the plant." Yet the saddest part of all is how so few people are willing to look at the evidence. In some ways, I almost would prefer the rest of the growing world keep up their ill-advised lollipopping, removing growing tips, and other low-yield techniques. The defoliation technique has been loudly condemned by "experienced" growers for decades. Nevertheless, I am determined to educate other growers about defoliating and let them see the results for themselves. So let me start by giving you some picture proof that defoliation works (make sure you scroll down to see all of them!). You see, I've been defoliating intensively for 30 years. I am now training plants to be 32" tall and 32" round and yielding 250-400 grams under 400 watt lamp.   Here are two of my beauties (the one on the right needs a good plucking)   How-To Tutorial: The Controversial Technique of Defoliation   Despite all the evidence (I've posted hundreds of pictures and shown dozens of growers in person), there is still somehow so much skepticism about defoliation techniques. Growers, especially new growers, often just say variations of, "It's common sense, how could removing any part of the plant cause you to get higher yields?" I recently attended an advanced seminar with a prominent fellow grower and got roundly booed when attempting to describe the defoliation technique, even with pictures showing dramatic benefits. Unlike many other growers, I believe what's most important is studying how the plant actually grows, instead of assuming she grows how we think she should grow. Real experimentation and unbiased observers are the only way growers are going to learn how to get the best yields for the amount of time, money, and effort. And it's true that some types of defoliation are brutal to the plants (such as when misguided growers removing all the leaves off extremely young marijuana plants), but other types of defoliation are actually hugely beneficial to increasing yields (I'll be showing you exactly what do do shortly). And defoliation is beneficial for more than just marijuana, it also has been proven to increase yields for certain other types of crops. For example, it's well-known that cowpeas experience significant increases in yields when up to 50% of their leaves are defoliated during their flowering stage... (source) This marijuana girl is 32" tall (the dimensions of this girl are 32"x32"x32" to be exact). She was intensely defoliated throughout her life. And it's true that the real beauty of defoliation is difficult to translate in pictures and verbally. But I will do my best to give you everything you need to start producing your own huge yields with marijuana defoliation. But First, Let Me Show You About Increased Bud Production With Defoliation During the Flowering Stage Before plucking   Immediately After Plucking   Just 4 days later, look at the incredible bud growth   Only 4 Days After That (after another defoliation session) Are you beginning to see the power of defoliation? How Early Do You Start Defoliating? I first started defoliating in desperation after many years of SOG, which I feel has proven to be too much work for inconsistent yields. After much experimentation, I've found my yields have been more consistent when training a single plant to use this space instead of 4 or 9 or 25 SOG clones. Never mind the fact that in many states, patients are limited to just a handful of plants, removing SoG as a viable option. Most growers who are curious about this do not want to perform defoliation on small plants. They consider the practice in veg to be too radical. And I 100% agree that totally stripping your seedlings of all leaves will be devastating to their growth. And the honest truth is that defoliation isn't for everyone. Beginners are often already dealing with the drawbacks to their choice of method or media, and defoliation can be disastrous to any but the healthiest of plants. Because of this, I sometimes hesitate to throw defoliation into the mix of challenges for beginning growers and I strongly advise any growers to experiment with defoliation (or with any extreme growth control method) in the vegetative stage only where there is nothing at stake. That being said, I believe the only reason you should allow a marijuana plant to leaf out completely is in an outdoor situation where you want as large a plant as possible. In that case you can save deleafing for mid to late summer after full-stretch and branching. The way I practice this method (growing indoors) leaves never get a chance to age. No leaves are allowed more than about two weeks existence. I start at the top in order to remove the shading. Removing lower leaf contributes nothing to the strategy of exposing usually shaded out mid and lower growth to premium light. I still remove older shabby leaves to keep it all tidy. And this is where defoliation gets controversial. Many growers feel that controlling their plant in any way during the vegetative stage will significantly reduce yields. And I understand how it can seem that way, especially to new growers, before you've gone through the entire life cycle of the marijuana plant a few times. Experiments show, again and again, that large plants with intensively prepared structure during extended Veg cycle yield far more than untrained, smaller, force-flowered inpiduals.   The truth is, that with marijuana, the real 'secret sauce' to getting enormous yields is when you've perfectly prepared your plants for the flowering stage. As any grower knows, once you're deep into flowering, there isn't a whole lot you can do about huge, out-of-control plants except hold on, pray for the best, and do better next time. I DO NOT lollipop and advice strongly against it. I use defoliation to skillfully and artfully prepare plants during the vegetative stage, so that lollipopping becomes completely unnecessary. I am on a mission to refocus growing technique to never remove ANY productive growth. I believe only leaves should be removed. Ultimately, the defoliation technique is a huge tool in the grower's toolbox that allows you to dominate the Vegetative stage. Then it can be used in the Flowering stage to maximize yields. Defoliation is the Big Secret to High-Yield, Compact Marijuana Plants My style involves intensive defoliation along with the twist and train method (a version of supercropping) using a basic net for support. I only top once, if at all, at the 5th or 6th node(approximately) depending on the height and structure of a given clone. I also deleaf them at this time. The only plants that get more topping than that are because they had clones taken from them. I don't usually keep dedicated mothers, instead, I just clone the clones and cycle everything through. Here is a close-up of a veg clone getting it's second stripping. Before After To get the best results, you should start defoliation in the vegetative stage. Leaf removal in bud is beneficial after stretch but most important to yields is management and the creation of a more compact plant with more budding sites in a given size. Stripping and bending takes practice but you must do it to get practice. By starting in veg you risk no bud. Veg plants are replaceable so experiment and be ready to devote a little more time to prepare them. I'd describe my stripping as "aggressive." Once your plant is trained to deal with defoliation, it's hard to go wrong. Plus, after years of experience, I've become very familiar with how these plants grow and always know what my outcome will be. But defoliation doesn't end in the vegetative stage. I also continue to pull the fan leaves off of my flowering plants to expose the buds. As far as when and how often, I don't get too scientific about it. Usually if things look leafy, meaning that you see more leaf than budsites when viewing the crop, it may be time for another deleafing. It usually takes a week to 10 days for a plant to releaf to the point that there are 2-4 new leaves that have flattened and greened enough to deleaf again. This repeated releafing process allows that lower growth to benefit from the maturing of the immediate leaf mass. Leaf removal stimulates lower and mid bud growth by exposing those normally shaded out areas to premium light. Of course those new to the technique should start slow, but if you start too slow you won't remove enough leaf to see the best result. You basically want to prevent any 'shade' from happening. Here's an example of how I deleaf a girl who is 2 weeks into 12-12 (flowering) Before After Notice how, you can now see light all the way through the plant. This is a good thing for light, as opposed to seeing nothing but leaves in the before pic. Wait, did you say you wanted to see what kind of buds I get at the BOTTOM of the plant? You get extensive bottom growth on defoliated plants This is on the morning of harvest. While some are obsessed with top growth I like well developed bottoms. Tops are a given. If bottoms are this well developed the tops are certainly getting their share of light. Some guys like tops, some like bottoms. I like my girls to be equally well developed. Ready to Get Started? You can start easy and try to save leaves but what happens when you see the results like all the mid growth exploding with the new exposure. It would serve logic that if you remove a little and there is good results than remove more and on and on until you get comfortable with stripping down these girls. I recommend you start deleafing as soon as your plants start looking 'bushy' at all. Start with removing the fans from all the branches and watch the results. Then remove progressively more. Don't remove any branches or sites if you want to commit to this method. The idea is shade removal, NOT budsite removal. Allow them to releaf for a week or so and remove again when they look leafy. This girl is 32"sq. and under 30" tall. She was thoroughly plucked continuously through her 11 week flowering cycle as well as during veg. No shortage of branches or buds, all of them chunky and exposed. I ended up harvesting 12 ounces off her. Marijuana plants do not get like this on their own. Stripping in veg and throughout bud is the only way to get results like this.     Answer to the 3 Most Common Questions About Marijuana Defoliation 1.) Which Leaves Can Be Plucked? All of them. That was the short answer. I remove everything that is easily pinched off with the thumbnail and forefinger. I keep a little bit of a cutting tool for a thumbnail specifically for that purpose. I don't try to get in super close to the buds once they get sticky unless it is just intolerably crowded. Any leaf that is attached by enough of a peristem to be plucked easily is fair game. Bud leaves are attached deeper in the bud cluster and are difficult to remove by hand. I do not yank or pull down on the leaf. I snip it off with the thumbnail. Don't sweat the stubs that are left, they dry out and fall off. Best not to try to cut so close to the plant, especially in mold prone climates. 2.) Can Defoliation Be Used with Any Growing Medium? Yes. Medium is not a factor. Go with what you like. Defoliation works great for marijuana grown in soil, coco coir, perlite, vermiculite, DWC, bubbleponics, and any other growing medium that marijuana grows in. 3.) I've Never Defoliated and Now I'm Several Weeks into Flowering with Tall, BUSHY Out-of-Control Plants... Can I Still Start Defoliating? If you've never defoliated before, go conservative to start, even if your plants look healthy. Do it moderately at first and a little more daily. Pluck fan leaves to prevent branches from growing taller. During the flowering stage, you'll be able to see the increase in bud production.   So there you have it, a basic introduction to defoliation for huge yields. It's about time defoliation went mainstream! View this full tutorial in its entirety: http://growweedeasy....iation-tutorial   About the Author: Keef Treez "The Defoliator" has run several threads on ICMag.com, Overgrow, and CannabisWorld which continue to be very popular and controversial even years after they were created, receiving millions of hits. He is located in a beautiful high country area where he legally provides as a caregiver. View his thread about defoliation on ICMag.com: http://www.icmag.com     http://www.webwire.c....asp?aId=157551 Source: Controversial Technique Increases Marijuana Yields... But At What Cost?

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Marijuana Activists Across Michigan Are Feeling A Little Less Discriminated Against

Marijuana activists across Michigan are feeling a little less discriminated against after a couple of state Supreme Court decisions favorable to their cause.   Nobody's dancing around throwing buds of their favorite cannabis strains into the air, but marijuana activists across Michigan are feeling a little less discriminated against after a couple of state Supreme Court decisions favorable to their cause.   Most folks who pay attention to the legal wrangling over the Michigan Medical Marihuana Act (MMMA) expected the high court to settle contentions about the details of the law. But few expected the conservative court would rule so definitively on its first MMMA cases. On May 31, in a 7-0 decision, the high court came down on the side of registered medical marijuana patients and caregivers in the case of People vs. King.   Citing the "plain language" of the law, Justice Mary Beth Kelly wrote an unambiguous opinion supporting the right of registered patients and caregivers to defend themselves in court using the MMMA. In a number of cases prosecutors have used a legal technicality to convince judges to disallow the so-called affirmative defense. For instance, one provision of the MMMA is that anyone growing medical marijuana must keep it in "enclosed, locked facilities." In the King case out of Owosso, the defendant was growing marijuana outdoors in a padlocked dog kennel with a six-foot-high, chain-link fence. Prosecutors argued that this wasn't secure because there was no roof; therefore King could not use the MMMA to defend himself. "They reversed a whole bunch of Court of Appeals precedent that has prevented patients from raising the affirmative defense," said attorney Matt Abel of the Cannabis Counsel law office. "I'm pleased with the decision; it's a correct interpretation of the law. It's a telling rebuke, perhaps, to the Court of Appeals. It would be hard not to notice."   That rebuke came in the form of an unusual 10-point appendix at the end of the opinion in the King case that plainly states the intent of the people in voting for the MMMA and refutes the arguments prosecutors have made against medical marijuana patients and caregivers. "In light of the need for guidance regarding the medical use of marijuana in Michigan, the following is designed to summarize our numerous holdings in these cases," Kelly wrote. The opinion can be found at tinyurl.com/7utor4l. The gist of the opinion is that the protections of the MMMA should be defined broadly rather than in the narrow manner espoused by state Attorney General Bill Schuette.   "The court voted unanimously on King," says attorney Stewart Friedman. "This is from a court which rarely speaks unanimously. I thought that was an interesting note. The 10-point summary, which I've never seen before, spoke in a number of ways that was really cutting to the chase, as though they were expecting the ruling to be read by a hostile audience. The overarching read that I took on the King case, is they were saying, 'Knock it off, the voters have spoken. You might not like what the people have to say but you've got to honor it.'"   http://metrotimes.co...sions-1.1328913     Source: Big Decisions Court Rulings Encourage Medical Marijuana Users, Balk Prosecutors

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Medical Marijuana May Become Decriminalized In 7 States

Medical Marijuana May Become Decriminalized in 7 States   Check out the video the Ohio Medical Cannabis Association speaking about "The Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012 proposed amendment"   http://youtube.com/watch?v=Z1Y6TjLl-4M   He is talking about a Patient Bill of Rights, or recognized State protections, different than in any other states. This is an interesting position, obviously well thought out after seeing what has transpired in the neighboring states. I had some interactions with the medical cannabis community from Ohio in the past year and a half. At the time their community couldn’t agree on what day of the week it was, and all I could think about was how lucky Michigan was to have passed its law when it did. This proposed amendment is much evolved from where they were back then. On a side note the discussion of a Patient Bill of Rights was brought up at the Judiciary Hearings and something worth pursuing in order for patients to be treated equally and fairly. I suggest we revisit this as we “hopefully” engage a new Legislature in the fall.. http://www.inquisitr...ed-in-7-states/   Medical Marijuana May Become Decriminalized in 7 States   Toking-up on medical marijuana may be legal in seven states after the November election. As of June 1, Ohio, Illinois, New York, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and New Hampshire included medical marijuana decriminalization amendments on the fall ballot or before the state assembly, according to the Pro-Con website. The regulated use of organic cannabis would allow patients the ability to opt for natural rather than synthetic medications created in a laboratory environment. A total of 16 states and the District of Columbia currently permit the regulated use of medical marijuana, the New York Times reports.   Although state laws will permit varying levels of sanctioned organic cannabis usage if the proposed measures pass, federal laws still consider any ingestion or possession of marijuana a criminal act.         Illinois – House Bill 0030 is a pilot program valid for only three years. A physician must diagnose a patient with a debilitating medial condition before allowing personal cultivation or purchase of medical marijuana from state regulated dispensaries.   Ohio - The Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012 proposed amendment was a citizen-led initiative to alter the state constitution and pave the way for the decriminalization of medical marijuana. Ballot issue language calls for the creation of an Ohio Commission of Cannabis Control to function in a manner similar to the existing liquor control commission for regulations purposes. Physician approval would also be required to legally obtain or grow cannabis.   New York – Senate Bill 7283 would permit allow the manufacture, possession, use, delivery, administration and transportation of marijuana by a caregiver for medicinal use. The New York Department of Health would establish regulations for a medical marijuana registry and monitor the program.   Pennsylvania – Senate Bill 1003 would allow medical use of cannabis and repeal prior laws which penalize marijuana usage. The bill is also known as “The Governor Raymond Shafer Compassionate Use Medical Marijuana Act.   Missouri – House Bill 1421 would change existing state laws which classify marijuana as a controlled substance. The change in designation would allow medical marijuana usage under a specific set of conditions as described in the pending legislation.   New Hampshire – Senate Bill 409 would permit patients who meet the state mandated criteria to obtain registration cards for up to six ounces of cannabis or six marijuana seedling plants if the patient does not have a caregiver capable of visiting dispensaries.   Massachusetts – House Bill 625 would protect patients, physicians and caregivers from criminal charges if caught using, growing or possessing marijuana. Police officers would retain the right to “exercise judgment” concerning medical marijuana arrests under Massachusetts’ companion legislation, Senate Bill 818.   Read more at http://www.inquisitr...wI2zB5lIJXHl.99       Source: Medical Marijuana May Become Decriminalized In 7 States

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Why Non-marijuana Consumers Should Support Ending Cannabis Prohibition

Just Because You Don’t Smoke Cannabis Doesn’t Mean You Shouldn’t Support Legalization   Every once in awhile I will be talking to a non-marijuana consumer, and they will tell me that the only reason they don’t support marijuana legalization is because they don’t smoke it. A common phrase I hear them say is, ‘Why would I care about something that doesn’t affect me?’ The fact of the matter is, marijuana prohibition affects us all to some extent, whether we consume cannabis or not.   More than 27% or Americans come from a minority background according to the Census Bureau. Considering the fact that there are now more minority babies in the United States than there are white babies, that number is obviously going to continue to grow. According to our friends at Encyclopedia Britannica, one of ‘Anslinger’s main weapons was inciting fear of Mexicans.’ Think that things have changed? Marijuana has been, and continues to be, one of law enforcement’s favorite ways to harass minorities.   Take for instance the city of Atlanta, GA. Last year, 93 percent of all marijuana possession arrests in the city of Atlanta were African-Americans, and 7 percent were white. The city’s population is 54 percent African-American and 38 percent white. If you are a non-marijuana consuming minority, and you don’t think that marijuana prohibition affects you, please research this issue more. I guarantee you will see that reform is way, way overdue.   Marijuana prohibition is also a human rights issue. Anyone who doesn’t think so should look at the terrifying pictures of headless bodies coming out of border towns in Mexico. A person might not consume marijuana, but I think we can all agree that no one should suffer the way people are in Northern Mexico. This suffering is due in large part to marijuana prohibition. As NPR previously stated, “As Mexico’s biggest agricultural export, marijuana generates billions of dollars in revenues each year for the brutal narcotics cartels. By some estimates, it is the most profitable product for the Mexican drug gangs.”   Ending marijuana prohibition in the United States would drastically cut back on what is possibly the greatest source of revenue for ruthless drug cartels. Right now people are dying at alarming rates in Mexican border towns because the gangs are trying to control the lucrative marijuana market. If America legalized marijuana, that market would dry up, and cartels would take a huge hit.   Another point that non-marijuana consumers need to consider is the economy. I think marijuana consumers and non-marijuana consumers alike can agree that resources are scarce these days. A lot of resources go into supporting the failed policy of marijuana prohibition. Shouldn’t those resources be directed to somewhere else? Perhaps to fight violent crime, or to fund schools, or just about anything anyone can think of besides prohibiting a harmless substance. I don’t want any resources wasted, on marijuana prohibition or anything else. America needs to be smart with it’s dollars. I have yet to find a non-marijuana consumer that disagrees with that last point.   Of course, not only would marijuana legalization save dollars on the outgoing end, legalization would usher in a ‘Green Era’ in American business that has never been seen before, and would generate enormous sums of money. All non-marijuana consumers can agree that we need more jobs in America. All non-marijuana consumers can agree that we need more tax funding for vital services such as schools and firefighters in America. It should be a logical conclusion then that we should legalize marijuana, which would do both of those things, almost overnight. Name one other industry on the planet that can say that truthfully.   Finally, non-marijuana consumers need to support marijuana legalization because even though they don’t consume marijuana themselves, chances are they know someone that does. Statistically speaking, it could be someone living in their own home. My good friend Adam J. Smith that writes for this blog always points out to me that if someone’s son or daughter gets caught consuming marijuana, that should be an issue left up to the parents, not the police. Non-marijuana consumers never think about marijuana prohibition in those terms. Should anyone’s son or daughter go to jail because they got caught possessing a personal amount of marijuana? I’m not a parent, but I can’t imagine any parent thinking that’s OK.   Marijuana consumers are everywhere. We are friends with non-marijuana consumers, we are related to non-marijuana consumers, we work with non-marijuana consumers, and in some cases, we are even married to non-marijuana consumers. Non-marijuana consumers that don’t support legalization likely haven’t heard from someone they know or love that they consume marijuana, and that there is nothing to fear. Have a conversation with a non-marijuana consumer today and explain to them why they should support marijuana legalization. After all, you don’t have to consume marijuana to realize that marijuana prohibition has failed!   http://www.theweedbl...is-prohibition/   Source: Why Non-marijuana Consumers Should Support Ending Cannabis Prohibition

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Grower's Dictionary

Grower's Dictionary   A-lamp n . standard incandescent lamp.   absorption n . The process by which plants take up water through their roots.   AC/H abbr . Air Changes per Hour. Measure of ventilation in enclosed spaces derived from ventilation fan CFM and cubic volume of a given space. 10 AC/H would indicate ventilation adequate to completely replenish air in a given space ten times per hour. 20 AC/H is considered optimal for cannabis cultivation, cooling load notwithstanding.   acid an acidic solution . A solution with a pH of 0-7.0.   acidify v . to lower the soil's pH to meet the characteristics of acid soil.   activated carbon n . ionized carbon granules, typically the main component in filters, effective in removing impurities from air and water. Activated carbon filters are effective in odors from air.   activator n . any of various substances such as microorganisms and nutrients, which, when added to a compost pile, speed the breakdown of organic matter. Also called compost activator and compost inoculant.   active air intake n . means of ventilating enclosed spaces with the use of mechanical fans or pumps. (ant. passive air intake).   adsortion n . condensation on the soil's surface.   aerate v. 1. to expose to the air. 2. to charge with air. Hydroponics operations often aerate nutrient solutions to reduce algae and bacterial growth and increase oxygenation.   aeration n . an exchange of air in the soil with air from the atmosphere. Earthworms accomplish this, as does digging and turning the soil to loosen it.   aeroponic n . variant of hydroponic cultivation in which liquid nutrient chemicals are aerosolized and sprayed on plant roots to increase oxygenation and nutrient solubility. Aeroponics is considered an advanced form of hydroponics and can help achieve slightly greater yields and faster growth when properly tended.   algae n . simple organisms of the plant kingdom, lacking roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Most grow in water, such as seaweeds or pondweeds. Seaweeds are valuable as fertilizers.   alternate adj . 1. Placed at uneven sequences upon the stem, as alternate leaves, which are solitary at the junction with the stem, in distinction from opposite or whorled. 2. Opposite to the intervals between organs, as petals that are alternate with sepals, or stamens with petals. Cannabis plants are often transferred from vegetative growth to flowering when upper leaf stems begin to alternate.   aluminum sulfate n . a colorless salt used as a soil amendment to increase soil acidity.   amendment n . a term for any conditioner or material (like lime, gypsum, etc.) that is added or worked into the soil to make it more productive. Soil amendment is often required for successful outdoor growing.   ammonium nitrate n . 1. An inorganic fertilizer used to add nitrogen to the soil. 2. The form that nitrogen takes in numerous commerical fertilizers. ammonium sulfate n. an inorganic fertilizer applied to soil (20.6% N)   ampere (AMP) n . measure of electric current strength in the meter-kilogram-second system. It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2 × 10-7 newtons per meter of length.   annual n . plant that lives one season or up to one year. Annuals can be carried over into a successive seasons by preventing them from setting seed. Cannabis is an annual plant.   anther n . the part of a stamen that contains the pollen, usually located at the end of a slender stalk often in the center of a blossom.   ampere (AMP) n . measure of electric current strength in the meter-kilogram-second system. It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2 × 10-7 newtons per meter of length.   apatite n . 1. Chief mineral found in phosphate rock. 2. An inorganic compound found in bones; a component of bone meal.   aphid n . any of several kinds of small, many- colored ******* insects, usually congregate on new growth (which often becomes distorted) of a great variety of plants, including ornamentals, like roses, and vegetables, like cabbage and broccoli. Easily controlled by insect predators, insecticidal soap, botanical insecticides, or traditional pesticides.   aphid trap n . a pheromone-baited (scent-baited) device to lure and capture aphids.   Aphytis wasp n . (see scale parasite.)   apophyllous adj . in botany, having distinct leaves, applied to a whorled flower with distinct sepals and petals   arc n . luminous discharge of electricity between two electrodes in HID lighting.   arc discharge n . transfer of electricity across two electrodes (anode and cathode), characterized by high electrode current densities and a low voltage drop at the electrode. (see high intensity discharge).   arc tube n . enclosure which contains the luminous gases and also houses the arc.   attenuate adj . tapering gradually to a narrow point. Most cannabis strains are known for their natural attenuate phenotype, similar to a "pine tree." Training, pruning, and other methods are used to alter the shape to avoid detection, as well as enhance branching.   asexual propagation v . (see clone)   auxin n . 1. naturally occurring plant hormone which promotes branching and root growth 2. organic substance characterized by its ability to promote growth, particularly of roots. It is an active ingredient in rooting compounds.   axis n . the stem; the central part or upright support of a plant to which organs or parts are attached.   bactericide n . agent that kills bacteria; specifically, that which kills bacterial plant diseases.   baking soda n . sodium or potassium bicarbonate. Sometimes mixed with horticultural oils and applied to plants to prevent fungal diseases, such as black spot and powdery mildew.   bagseed n . slang for seeds present in dried marijuana acquired primarily for smoking. Bagseed can be successfully propagated but with sometimes unreliable or undesirable results.   ballast n . electrical device consisting of a transformer, a capacitor, and in some cases, and ignitor, and used most commonly with commercial fluorescent light fixtures and also found in high intensity discharge fixtures. The ballast provides a constant, regulated flow of electricity which reduces fluctuation in lumen output and protects the lamp from power surges and current falloff. Ballasts are designed to be used with one particular type of lamp, although "switchable" ballasts designed to be used with multiple lamp types are also available.   base n . 1. An alkaline solution. 2. A solution with a pH of 7.1 or higher.   bast n . 1. woody fiber obtained from the phloem, or inner bark, used to make cords such as hemp, jute, ramie, etc.   beans n . pl. slang term for cannabis seeds.   bendiocarb n . synthetic insecticide used to control a variety of house and garden pests.   benomyl n . systemic fungicide used to control a variety of diseases of ornamentals, usually foliar. It is absorbed into the system of the plant to fight off infection. Common trade name: Benlate.   binomial adj . 1. Using or having 2 names: applied to the system of naming plants introduced by Linnaeus, in which every plant receives 2 names, 1 indicating the genus, the other the species; for example, as Bellis perennis, the English daisy. The genus is always written first, and with a capital initial letter; it is, or is used, as a noun. The specific word follows, which is usually an adjective, or used as an adjective, though it may be a noun. 2. Consisting of 2 names, as binomial terms.   biodynamic adj . Of, or concerned with, the dynamic relation between organisms and their environment.   black spot n . fungal disease causing black spotting on foliage and stems. Most common in areas with summer rain and/or high humidity. Good winter cleanup (destroying infected leaves and prunings) and spring fungicide sprays are effective controls.   blister beetle n . voracious feeding, swarming insect that devours many garden vegetables and ornamentals. When crushed, irritants exuding from the beetle can cause blisters on the skin, hence the name. Wear gloves when handling. Pyrethrum-rotenone combinations, parasitic nematodes, and traditional insecticides are effective controls.   blood meal n . soluble fertilizer high in nitrogen and derived from dried livestock blood. Used primarily in organic gardening.   blower n . air handling device for moving air in a distribution system.   bone meal n . ground bone, raw or steamed, that is used as a fertilizer to add phosphoric acid to the soil in organic gardening.   botanical insecticide n . any of various natural insecticides derived from plants. They include pyrethrum, neem, rotenone, rynia, sabadilla, and nicotine sulfate. They break down quickly when exposed to sun and must be applied frequently. They usually are nontoxic but not always (see nicotine sulfate).   bract n . leaf in a flower cluster or a leaf base of a flower, usually differing somewhat from an ordinary leaf in size, form, or texture; often much reduced but occasionally large and showy. Sometimes petallike, highly colored, and very conspicuous.   bracteate adj . having bracts.   breeding v. propagation of selected plants to develop distinctive qualities, such as yield, size, and disease resistance.   BU n . industry code indicating that a lamp is to be operated only in a base up position.   bubble hash n . highly purified form of smokable hash, consisting of refined, pressed cannabis resins that "bubble" when smoked.   bud n . smokable flowers of a cannabis plant. Used interchangeably as both the entire cola and the individual flowers that are cleaned from the stem and smoked.   buffer n . substance in the soil that will chemically act to resist changes in the soil's reaction or pH, usually clay or fine organic matter.   bulb n . glass outer envelope component of a lamp which protects the arc tube or filament.   bulb wall temperature n . temperature at the bulb wall of a lamp, which effects lumen output and input wattage and which is important in lighting calculations.   burnt lime (CaO) n . caustic solid used to neutralize acid soil or to raise the pH of soil.   bushy adj . short, full growth with multiple branching and numerous leaves, attributed to abundant light.   calyx n . the flower of the cannabis plant, consisting of two long white or colored hair-like pistils surrounded by a stipule of bracts (reduced leaves) and covered with resin exuding glandular trichomes.   candela n . unit of luminous intensity in a given direction, equal to one lumen per steradian. Historically equal to one candle of spermaceti (whale fat) so constructed to burn at the rate of 120 grains, or 7.8 grams, per hour, over one square foot of surface area, at a distance of one foot. In the metric system, a candela is equal to 1/60 of the luminous intensity per square centimeter of a blackbody radiating at 2046 degrees Kelvin.   candlepower (CP) n . luminous intensity of a light source, as expressed in candelas.   candlepower distribution curve n . graph that represents the varying distribution of luminous intensity of a lamp or luminaire.   Cannabaceae n . family of 2 genera and 3 species; the hemp family. The 2 genera are Cannabis, true hemp, or marijuana, and [/i] Humulus [/i] , commonly known as hops. It is illegal to grow Cannabis sativa in the United States without a government permit. Humulus lupulus is grown as a summer vine and is an important ingredient in beer.   Cannabis n . 1. genus of a single species, C. sativa, with long, toothed leaves and spikes or clusters of flowers. (See hemp.) 2. generic reference to any of several strains of annual dioecious plants, native to central Asia, and having alternate, palmately divided leaves and tough bast fibers which produce a mildly euphoric, intoxicating and/or hallucinogenic effect when smoked or eaten.   cannabutter n . cooking paste created from resins extracted from discarded cannabis leaves and stems in boiling water and butter. Water is boiled off or evaporated and remaining butter is hardened and used in foods prepared to give a psychoactive response, such as brownies, cookies, and other baked goods.   capacitor n . electronic device that can store electrical charge. The capacitor is one of the main components of an HID lighting ballast.   carbon scrubber n . (see activated carbon).   CFM abbr . Cubic Feet per Minute. Unit of air flow used to rate fan output, equal to the movement of one cubic foot of air every minute.   chitin n . natural pesticide made from ground-up crustacean shells and added to soil to increase the feeding of soil organisms on nematode eggs.   chlorophyll n . green pigment found in plant chloroplasts (glands) through which assimilation of plant food takes place. The curing process helps eliminate chlorophyll which aids in reducing harshness of smoke.   clone n . new plant propagated from a mother with desirable genetics by cutting and inducing roots, either by natural hydration of by use of chemical hormones. v. To propagate a new plant with desirable genetics by same means.   CO2 enrichment v . technique of adding carbon dioxide to the growth environment to enhance photosynthesis and chlorophyll production and thus biomass. Methods of enrichment include using bottled gas with regulators and timers, yeast cultures, and vinegar and baking soda.   cola n . portion(s) of the cannabis plant consisting of a dense cluster of stigmas, pistils, sepals, fan leaves, and (if pollinated) seeds. Syn. bud.   cold start time n . length of time required to bring an HID lamp to 90% light output from a cold condition.   color temperature n . unit of measure to express the color (spectrum) of light emitted by a lamp; the absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having a chromaticity equal to that of the light source (see correlated color temperature). Lamps rated at 6500 degrees K radiate primarily in the blue/green portion of the color spectrum, which mimics the spring and early summer sun and is most commonly used for vegetative growth; those rated at 2500 K radiate primarily in the red/orange portion of the spectrum, which mimics the late summer and early fall sun and is commonly used to induce flowering.   correlated color temperature (CCT) n . specification of the color appearance of a light source, relating its color to that of a blackbody radiator, as measured in kelvins (K). CCT is a general measure of a lamp's "coolness" or "warmness."   compost tea n . (see worm tea).   continuous grow n . simultaneous cultivation of several cannabis plants at many stages of development to produce a regular yield at short intervals.   conversion bulb n . lamp of a certain spectrum type specially designed to operate while used in the fixture/ballast of a different type. The most common conversion bulbs create sodium spectrum using a metal halide system.   cool tube n . glass sleeve installed around a lamp and connected to a ventilation source to actively discharge heat.   copper n . element used in various forms, including copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture, to control fungal and bacterial diseases of plants. Also used in strips around shrub stalks and tree trunks to act as a barrier to snails.   cull v . to remove rejected members of a group, specifically something of inferior quality. In cannabis cultivation, male plants are culled from the growing room to prevent pollination and to focus resources on female plants.   curing v . process of aging harvested cannabis plants to increase quality. Curing decreases chlorophyll content to decrease harshness and allows decarboxylation to occur, increasing psychoactive properties. Dried buds are typically cured in sealed glass or plastic containers for up to 2 weeks.   daylight lamp n . lamp with altered color characteristics to mimic key portions of sun spectrum, usually blue/green (6000-7500 degrees K). Daylight corrected lamps are frequently used in growing because of their greater concentration of light in wavelengths beneficial to plants.   decarboxylation n . removal of a carboxyl group from a chemical compound. Decarboxylation of THC occurs naturally while curing, increasing its psychoactive effect.   dendroid [/i] adj [/i] . treelike; dendriform; arborescent; branching like a tree. Cannabis plants have dendroid characteristics.   denitrification n . process by which bacterial action reduces nitrates in the soil to ammonia or free nitrogen that can escape into the air.   denticulate adj . finely dentate; edged with minute toothlike projections: such as, a denticulate leaf, calyx, etc.   dioecious adj . having male and female reproductive organs borne on separate individuals of the same species. Only female cannabis plants that are prized for their sexual organs, or buds. Syn. sex.   direct seeding v . sowing seeds directly into the soil.   ditchweed n . slang for low potency cannabis plants growing wild and unattended.   dome n . portion of an HID outer bulb located opposite base (the neck and threads).   dome support n . spring-like brackets which mount the arc tube within the outer envelope (bulb).   drip irrigation n . 1. system of watering by which moisture running through a porous hose is slowly released through tiny holes, or emitters, to the root zone of plants. 2. simple hydroponic system in which water and nutrient solution is delivered to the roots by same means.   drying adv . water content reduction in plants, by either natural or artificial means. Ideally, plants are dried without additional heat, which can affect chemical properties. Harvested cannabis plants should have stiff but slightly pliable stems prior to curing. Cured buds should be further dried prior to long term storage to eliminate risk of mold and enhance combustibility.   Dursban n . common synthetic insecticide (chemical name: chlorpyrifos) used to control a variety of pests. Effective against ants and many soil- dwelling insects.   early sexing v . technique of determining sex of cannabis plant by introducing a photoperiod on one branch prior to inducing flowering on the entire plant. Techniques include covering the branch with light blocking bags/tarps or threading branches through light blocking partitions into a separate flowering chamber.   efflorescence n . time or state of flowering; anthesis.   enantioblastic adj . pertaining to a plant embryo, originating at the end directly opposite the hilum (seed scar).   episperm n . hard external covering of a seed   epithet n . part of the scientific Latin name of a plant which follows the name of the genus and identifies the species, variety, or other sub-unit. In the name of the moss rose Rosa centifolia muscosa, centifolia is the specific epithet, and muscosa is the varietal epithet.   electrode n . filament located at either end of a HID lamp that maintains an electrical arc, usually in a gaseous or near vacuum environment to produce light. (see high intensity discharge.   evapotranspiration n . 1. The loss of water from the soil by evaporation and plant transpiration. 2. Water on the surface taken away by water, wind, air, and elements.   extrafloral adj . Of a plant part that does not form part of a flower.   fan n . (see blower).   female n . In botany, a plant that produces fruit; that plant that bears the pistil and receives the pollen or fertilizing element of the male plant, or the analagous organ in cryptogams.   feminized adj . description of seeds that have been bred for higher incidence of female plants.   ferric iron n . oxidized or high-volence form of iron.   ferrous iron n . reduced or low-volence form of iron.   fert. abbr . (see fertilizer.)   fertigation v . combined automation of irrigation and fertilization with nutrient supplements into one process.   fertilizer n . combination of minerals and chemicals added to soil to enhance plant growth and characteristics. Fertilizers generally consist of varying mixtures of Nitrogen, Phosporus, and Potassium as well as other trace elements and minerals essential to sustain plant growth. (see N-P-K.)   FIM abbr . colorful euphemism for technique requiring removal of 90% of growth tips to induce branching and increase number of colas. FIM is attributed to the phrase "F uck, I Missed!"   fimble n . male hemp plant or the fiber made from it. Also called fimble hemp.   fish emulsion n . Nitrogen-rich organic nutrient solution prepared from herring, sardine, and anchovy fish oil extracts, used primarily in foliar feeding.   flaccid adj . limp, lacking strength; weak.   flea beetle n . tiny, hopping insect that attacks a variety of plants. They usually start by eating small holes in leaves; the plants then wither or look scalded. They are very destructive and harmful viruses to plants. Control with sanitation, rotenone or pyrethrin sprays on vegetables, or traditional insecticides.   flex duct n . round metal or plastic ducts that can be bent around obstacles or repositioned used in HVAC systems. (slang: flex)   flowering v . cycle when plant energy is focused primarily on reproduction through blooming, sexual propagation, and seed creation.   fluoro. abbr . (see fluorescent.)   fluorescent n . type of lamp consisting of unpressurized inert gasses excited by electrical current to create ultraviolet light, which reacts with phosphor coatings inside a glass tube to create fluorescence. Fluorescent lamps emit more lumens per watt and less heat than incandescent lamps. Alteration of gas mixture and coatings on fluorescent tubes yields various color temperatures. Many fluorescents require ballasts to regulate electrical flow to maintain a constant output. Low wattage fluorescent lamps are generally inexpensive, widely available and inexpensive to operate, thus they are commonly used by small grow operations for limited numbers of plants. Light from fluorescent lamps quickly diminishes in intensity moving away from the bulb surface, requiring training of plants and frequent movement of lights to accommodate plant growth.   footcandle n . standard measurement of light intensity, representing the amount of illuminance on a surface one foot square on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. More simply, one footcandle of illuminance is equal to the light emitted by one candle at a distance of one foot.   foliar adj . consisting of or pertaining to leaves.   foliar feeding v . fertilization by spraying diluted nutrient solution directly onto leaves.   frequency n . number of waves or cycles of electromagnetic radiation per second, usually measured in hertz (Hz).   ganja n . term for cannabis used in India.   genetics n . slang term for genetic characteristics among various strains of cannabis plants. Also slang term for high quality seeds of strains with known characteristics and most often acquired from seed banks.   geotropism n . 1. Tropism in which gravity is the orienting factor, up or down. 2. In botany, tropism in which growth is toward the earth.   germination n . initial activation of a seed caused by the softening of the seed casing by water and indicated by a single root, called a tap root, forced through the casing and drawn down into soil by gravity.   genotype n . genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.   guano n . strong organic fertilizer composed of droppings, primarily or birds or bats.   guerilla cultivation v . tactic of outdoor cultivation on property away from the cultivators base of operation to reduce risk of identification.   halogen n . type of incandescent which emits light in the red/orange (2500 degrees K color temp). Halogen lamps produce more heat per watt than other lamps of equal wattage and color temperature and thus are not often used for growing.   hardening off v . process of gradually acclimatizing greenhouse- or hotbed-grown plants to outdoor growing conditions.   hash n. generic term for low potency cannabis plants cultivated primarily for their trichomes, or crystallized THC, present on leaves. Also refers to the smokable/digestible product extracted from cannabis plants, purified by various means, and pressed into small wafers, and smoked or eaten. (also see Shake, Bubble Hash)   hashish n . common name for the tops and tender parts of Cannabis sativa, a tall plant with long, toothed, hand-shaped leaves and spikes or panicles of flowers. Commonly known as pot, marijuana, ganjah, bhang, or Indian hemp. Also spelled hasheesh.   heavy soil n . term to indicate a clayish fine-textured soil.   heliophilous adj . fond of the sun; attracted by or becoming most active in sunlight. Cannabis is considered a heliophilous plant.   hemp n . 1. common name for the genus Cannabis, an annual herbaceous plant cultivated primarily for its tough, versatile, high quality fibers and viscous oil and used in a variety of industrial applications such as textiles, paper-making, rope and twine, and machinery lubrication.   herbaceous adj . 1. Not woody, pertaining to a plant or stem: dying to the ground each year, usually in winter. 2. Leaflike in color texture.   hermaphrodite n . plant which exhibits some qualities of both male and female plant yet does not fully develop male stamens and anthers or female calyxes and pistils. Stress, disease, inadequate light, and poor genetics are understood to be causes of hermaphrodism in plants.   HID abbr . (see high intensity discharge)   high intensity discharge n . specialized lamp consisting of a pressurized mix of gasses excited by an electrical arc and designed for high lumen output within a specific color temperature. Types of high intensity discharge lamps include metal halide, high pressure sodium, and mercury vapor.   high pressure sodium n . HID lamp containing sodium, mercury and xenon gases within a sealed ceramic arc tube and emiting light in the red/orange wavelength (2500 degrees K color temp). HPS lamps are commonly used in flowering stage, although color corrected or daylight HPS lamps are sometimes used all cultivation stages.   hood n . (see reflector)   hor. abbr . industry code indicating that the bulb is to be operated in a horizontal position.   hot spot n . area immediately under an HID lamp where the light intensity is strongest. Hot spots cause uneven growth, but can be remedied by using light movers.   hot start time n . length of time required to bring an HID lamp to 90% light output after a short power interruption.   HPS abbr . (see high pressure sodium)   humate n . salt of humic acid. In cultivation, humate is used as a generic term for any number of highly compressed organic solids and is collected and sold as an admixture in organic gardening and nutrient for hydroponics.   hummus n . general term for soil containing rich organic compounds, beneficial bacteria, and low in mineral content. Hummus has a tendency to drain poorly, and is used as a base for soil preparation along with peat, sand, clay, and artificial admixtures such as perlite.   HVAC abbr . 1. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning. Industry term for any mechanical means of regulating temperature and supplying ventilation to enclosed spaces. 2. High Volume Air Conditioning. Subspecialty involving the cooling of large spaces, typically in industrial settings.   hydrogen peroxide n . H202. clear liquid, reactive solution which decomposes quickly into water and one free oxygen atom. Used as an anti-fungal agent in soil and hydroponics operations at 3% solution. Has been attributed to enhanced oxygen concentration at plant roots when free oxygen atoms combine with one another to form O2, although the effect of free radicals in plant soil is not well understood.   hydroponic n . technique of horticulture relying on chemical nutrient solution fed directly to plant roots suspended in a sterile, non-organic medium. Hydroponic systems, when properly tended, are attributed to faster growth, healthier plants, and higher yields than traditional growing methods.   icterus n . in botany, jaundice.   ignitor n . component of the ballast necessary for the starting of the bulb in HID systems.   illuminance n . density of incident luminous flux on a surface; illuminance is the standard metric for lighting levels, and is measured in lux (lx) or footcandles (fc).   inbreed v . to subject to inbreeding; to breed from individuals of the same parentage or otherwise closely related.   incandescent n . type of lamp consisting of an electrified filament suspended in a near-vacuum environment. Incandescents are not commonly used in horticulture because of their low [/i] color temperature [/i] and high inefficiency.   indica n . family of cannabis strains known for robustness and tall growth. Often hybridized with sativa strains to create a mixture of desirable characteristics.   infiltration rate n . rate of water entering the soil that is controlled by surface conditions.   inorganic adj. 1. Not natural; not organic; artificial. 2. Composed of other than animal or plant matter; mineral.   insecticidal soap n . A low-toxicity pesticide made from the salts of fatty acids. It kills soft-bodied insects, like aphids, spider mites, thrips, and whiteflies, by disrupting cell membranes. (Make your own by mixing 2 tablespoons dishwashing detergent in 1 gallon of water.) It may burn foliage in hot weather. It is sometimes combined with other materials, such as citrus oil or sulfur, to increase efficiency. Complete coverage of the plant is essential to control.   internode n . part or space between 2 nodes.   internode spacing n . refers to length of stem between nodes. Generally, short internode length indicates optimal light intensity and color temperature for vegetative growth. Longer internode spacing indicates a phototropic response in the plant to stretch towards a low intensity light source.   involute adj . rolled inward, as the margin of a leaf.   iron n . soil nutrient required by plants to manufacture chlorophyll. In dry, alkaline soils, plants may not be able to absorb iron from the soil, which causes the leaves to turn yellow with green veins. Products containing iron chelates may be added to the soil or sprayed on foliage to make iron available to the roots and leaves.   Japanese beetle n . very destructive pest introduced from Japan. The adult beetles feed voraciously on the foliage of many plants, especially deciduous trees. The grubs feed on plant roots. The beetles can be controlled somewhat with pheromone traps; the grubs can be effectively killed using Bacillus popillea or parasitic nematodes. Traditional pesticides are also effective.   Japanese beetle trap n . A container baited with floral and/or sex scents to capture the voracious, garden-consuming Japanese beetle.   jointed adj . having nodes.   K+ abbr . slang for "good karma" on internet forums. Indication of general support of or agreement with a post or thread.   K- abbr . slang for "bad karma". Indication of disagreement with a post or thread.   kainite n . natural salt contained in a fertilzer that is used as a source of potash (14% k).   kelp n. Any of various brown, often very large seaweeds with leathery fronds of the order Laminariales. Dried and ground kelp and kelp extracts are common in organic gardening.   kelvin (K) n . unit of measurement to express the color (spectrum) of light emitted by a lamp; the absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having a chromaticity equal to that of the light source (see correlated color temperature).   Kelthane n . synthetic insecticide (chemical name: dicofol) used primarily for control of spider mites.   kilowatt n . one thousand watts.   kilowatt-hour n . Measure of electrical consumption used by electric utilities and power distributors equal to the consumption of one kilowatt in one hour.   lacunulose adj . having tiny holes, as in leaves.   lamina n ., (pl. laminae (-ne)). thin plate or scale. Specifically, in botany, the blade or expanded portion of a leaf or petal.   lamp n . the illuminated portion of a light fixture, typically consisting of a glass bulb encasing a gas, electrode, and/or filament which emits light when an electrical charge is applied.   lamp life n . measure of lamp performance, as measured in median hours of burning time under ANSI test conditions.   lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) n . decrease over time of lamp lumen output, caused by bulb wall blackening, phosphor exhaustion, filament depreciation, and other factors.   lamp start n . generic term used to describe a lamp's starting characteristics in terms of time to come to full output, flicker, etc.   leaf n . part of a plant that grows along the sides of stems or branches, containing chlorophyll. Ordinarily, leaves are the part of a plant that performs photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy for the plant to grow. It is common for leaves to grow, fall off, and be replaced.   leaf spot n . general term used to describe various types of foliage diseases that usually result in circular spots on leaves. Usually controlled with well-timed fungicidal sprays. (See anthracnose, black spot, and scab.)   LEO abbr . law enforcement officer.   light mover n . motorized device which moves an HID lamp back and forth across a track mounted to the ceiling of a grow room to provide more even distribution of the light.   limestone n . material worked into soil to alter an acid pH to an alkaline pH.   lime sulfur n . caustic pesticide made from calcium polysulfide. Usually used as a spray to control various diseases, including leaf spot, peach leaf curl, and powdery mildew. Also effective against mites, scale, and some other insects.   LST abbr . low stress training. Gentle coaxing of plant stems and branches to prevent stress and thus plant damage or hermaphrodism.   lumen n . the unit of [/i] luminous flux [/i] in the International System, equal to the amount of light given out through a solid angle by a source of one candela intensity radiating equally in all directions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that light output of 2000 lumens/sf of growing area is the minimum required for germination and plant growth. Moderate growth will be achieved with 5000 lumens/sf, and optimal growth will be achieved with 7000 lumens/sf or higher.   luminaire n . complete lighting unit, consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the components required to distribute the light, position the lamps, and connect the lamps to a power supply. Often referred to as a "fixture."   lux n . standard unit of illuminance. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter.   male adj . in botany, having flowers that have stamens only and do not produce fruit or seed. In cannabis cultivation, male plants are typically culled as soon as they can be identified to focus resources on female plants and to prevent pollination. Breeders typically keep one male plant of a known strain in another grow area to selectively pollinate particular female plants.   manicure n . during cultivation, the removal of excess leaves to focus plant energy on the developing cola. After harvesting, the removal of seeds, stems, leaves, and other elements of the dried cola from the high potency flowers.   marcescent adj . of a plant part, withering but not falling off. Plants may be marcescent for many reasons, including nutrient or water deficiency, disease, or pest infestation.   mechanical analysis n . physical analysis of soil material to determine its grain-size fraction.   mechanical stability n . resistance of soil broken down by mechanical forces like tillage or abrasion.   medicinal marijuana n . marijuana smoked or eaten for health-related physiological purposes. Marijuana use has been clinically attributed to decrease in pain from intraoccular pressure in patients with glaucoma, appetite stimulation in patients with AIDS and chemotherapy related wasting, and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, chronic pain, among other contemporary and historical diagnoses. Use of marijuana for medical purposes is legal in some jurisdictions.   mercury vapor n . type of high intensity discharge lamp generating light by means of electrical arc in vaporized mercury and emitting light in the red/orange wavelength (approx 2000 degrees K color temp). Mercury vapor lights are commonly used as security lights or to illuminate outdoor areas. These lights are not suitable for growing.   metal halide n . type of high intensity discharge lamp generating light by means of electrical arc through a mixture of vaporized halides, and emitting light in the blue/green wavelength (approx 6500 degrees K color temp). Known to enhance "bushiness" and discourage upward growth. Metal halide lights are commonly used in vegetative growth stage , although "enhanced spectrum" lights are sometimes used for all cultivation stages due to additional intensity in the red/orange spectrum.   MH abbr . (see metal halide.)   midrib n . in botany, the central vein of a leaf or leaflike part.   mildew n . 1. A growth, usually whitish in color, produced on living plants by fungus. 2. A fungus that causes such growth. Mildew is typically controlled by lowering relative humidity, standing water, and by separating plants that are touching each other or other surfaces.   miticide n . material used to control or kill mites.   magnesium n . element found in combination in minerals; in plants, located either in the seeds or in the chlorophyll.   moisture tension n . force at which water is held by soil. Expressed as the equivalent of a unit column of water in centimeters.   monovalent cation n . ion having a single positive charge.   mother n . a female plant selected for desirable genetics used as a source for clones.   MV abbr . (see mercury vapor)   N-P-K n . reference to relative percentage ratios of 3 basic nutrients in plant fertilizers. N refers to nitrogen, P refers to phosphorus, and K refers to potassium. Roughly equal N-P-K ratios will promote vegetative growth, and higher concentrations of phosphorus will help induce flowering.   neck n . The narrow, tubular end of the HID bulb, attached to the threads.   negative ion generator n . device which creates a cloud of negatively charged ions and distributes this cloud into the atmosphere to bond with positively charged particles in the air, neutralizing their odor effects. Many ion generators appliances are also equipped with a charged metal diode which acts as a conductor to attract airborne particulates for enhanced odor control.   negative pressure n . ventilation system designed so that air flows from the corridors into an isolated space, ensuring that contaminated air cannot escape from the isolated to other parts of the facility.   neutral soil n . 1. A soil that is neither significantly acid nor alkaline. 2. A soil with a pH of 7.0. 3. A soil with a pH of between 6.6 and 7.3.   NIG abbr . (see negative ion generator)   nitrate of soda n . inorgnic fertilizer that leaves an alkaline reaction.   nitrification n. formation of nitrates and nitrites from ammonia.   nitrogen n . element heavily drawn upon by plant crops; usually the first element in the soil to be depleted. Nitrogen (N) is one of the three key ratios in commercial fertilizer.   node n . Section of plant stem where branching and leafing occur.   nodiferous adj . in botany, bearing or producing nodes.   nutes abbr . (see nutrient solution.)   nutrient solution n . liquid fertilizers used in both soil and hydroponic operations.   organic gardening adv . method of gardening using only natural, unprocessed or unrefined materials as substrate and nutrient supplements. Ash, blood meal, worm tea and castings, and other materials are used in lieu of chemical fertilizers.   organic soil n . term applied to soil that consists primarily of organic matter, such as peat, compost, guano, or other natural materials.   orthotropic adj . in botany, of or pertaining to or exhibiting orthotropism; growing more or less vertically. Under normal circumstances, cannabis plants grow orthotropically.   oxygen n . element found in the soil needed by plants for growth, typically absorbed at the roots.   ozone n . O3. molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen. Reactive gas used to neutralize odors by bonding with particulates, making them slightly heavier than the surrounding air and drop out of the atmosphere. Ozone generators are common appliances in grow rooms used to reduce odors, especially during flowering. Effects of ozone gas on humans and plants are debated, although there is officially no known hazard.   palmate adj. in botany, having 3 or more lobes, leaflets, or nerves radiating from a common point. Cannabis leaves are considered palmate.   PAR lamp n . type of halogen with an internal reflector designed for use in a standard A-lamp socket. PAR lamps are not suitable for horticulture.   parabolic reflector n . lighting distribution control device that is designed to redirect the light from an HID lamp in a specific direction. In most applications, the parabolic device directs light down and away from the direct glare zone.   passive air intake n . means of ventilating enclosed spaces without mechanical assistance. (ant. active air intake).   perlite n . natural volcanic glass expanded into tough, light granules using high temperatures and used as admixture to increase drainage in dense or poorly draining soils.   pinching n . method of pruning plants by removing new leaves or buds at the growth tip to encourage branching or fuller growth. Also sometimes referred to as topping.   integrated pest management n . An approach to pest control that strives to manage pests at acceptable levels instead of completely eliminating them. It begins with techniques that are least disruptive, such as planting resistant varieties, using biological controls, less toxic sprays and appropriate cultural techniques, and only using traditional synthetic pesticides as a last resort.   pH n . measure of relative acidity/base of a substrate, such as water or soil, on a scale of 1-14. A pH of 6.5-7.0 is optimal for water and soil to be used for cannabis cultivation. pH is measured with digital meters and strips and can be altered with the addition of more or less acidic admixtures.   phenotype n . In botany, the outward form, appearance, and characteristics of a plant, produced by the interaction of environmental and situational factors upon the traits dictated by the plant's genes. Training, supercropping, and topping are all methods of altering the cannabis plant's phenotype to increase plant size and yield.   photoperiod n . lighting cycle used to mimic seasonal conditions for different stages of growth. 18/6 photoperiod refers to 18 hours of lights on, 6 hours of lights off, and is used to induce vegetative growth, as is no photoperiod (lights on 24/7). A 12/12 photoperiod is used to induce flowering.   photosynthesis n . process by which plants build chemical compounds (carbohydrates) from light energy, water and CO2 (carbon dioxide) to use as food.   phototropic adv . growth or movement of a sessile organism toward or away from a source of light. Plants illustrate a phototropic response to light which is enhanced in artificial illumination environments. Rel: Heliotropic adv. growth or movement toward or away from the sun.   PO abbr . police officer. Also, probation officer.   podzolization n . process by which soils are depleted of alkaline material and become more acid.   pollen n . mass of microspores or grains located on the anthers of seed plants and containing the male gametophytes. In cannabis, only male plants produce pollen.   powdery mildew n . fungal disease that causes white or grayish spots or powderylike threads on the new growth of many plants. Traditional fungicidal sprays are the most effective controls. Antitranspirant sprays may also help prevent infection.   PPM abbr . parts per million. Measure of minerals or compounds in a solution or mixture of liquid or gas.   quartz halogen n . (see halogen.)   radical adj . in botany, pertaining to or growing from the root.   radication n . process of taking root or of causing to take root. (ant. eradicate).   radix n . the root of a plant.   reflector n . portion of a light fixture which creates an enclosure around the lamp to distribute light in a desired direction. Many reflectors are also equipped with ventilation sockets.   regenerate v . to returning plants to vegetative growth after colas have been harvested to increase yields from a single plant.   RH abbr . (see relative humidity.)   reflectivity n . measure of the reflective quality of a surface; the relative ability of a given surface to reflect light away from it without absorbing, diffusing or otherwise compromising the light's quality, intensity and spectrum.   relative humidity n . measure of relative moisture content of air as compared to the total water vapor the air could hold at the given air temperature. Relative humidity is measured with a sling psychrometer or other calibrated device. 65% relative humidity is considered optimal for cannabis cultivation.   rogue n . plant that falls short of any predefined standard as compared to others of its genotype, such as size, growth speed, yield, etc.   root rot n . name used to describe a disease caused by soil-borne fungi that kill plant roots in overly wet or poorly drained soil with insufficient aeration. Plants turn yellow, individual branches wilt or die back, and entire plant may die. The best control is to improve drainage and cut back on watering. Very few fungicides provide effective control.   rooting hormone n . powdered or liquid compound used to induce rooting in plant cuttings.   rockwool n . mineral fiber used in horticulture to start seedlings and as a substrate for hydroponic systems.   ruderalis n . family of cannabis strains known for negligible concentrations of psychoactive compounds.   sativa n . family of cannabis strains known for high THC potency and dense cola formation. Often hybridized with indica strains to create a mixture of desirable characteristics.   scale n . large group of insects, so called for their multi-colored shieldlike armor under which they hide and feed. They stick fast to plant stems, branches, and leaves of herbaceous plants, often resembling small bumps or "scales". Their outer shell makes them difficult to control with insecticides. Infested plants are weakened, grow poorly; leaves are distorted or drop; branches or entire plants can die. To control, encourage or release beneficial insects, handpick, spray with insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, or traditional insecticides. Sprays are most effective when insects are in the crawler stage. Scale can be effectively removed by hand with the point of a small paring knife.   scale parasite n . any of several species of Aphytis wasps used as biological control of some species of scale. They can be purchased through the mail.   scarecrow n . object suggesting a human or animal figure used to keep animals from gardens. Inflatable snakes are sometimes used to keep rodents from eating young plants.   scorch n . injury to leaves caused by lack of water or excessive transpiration.   ScrOG abbr . Screen of Green. Technique of growing cannabis employing a screen or grid into which plants are trained to grow to maximize the available space and lighting. (also see SoG).   sexual propagation n . propogation using seeds. Sexual propagation introduces genetic variation in characteristics of offspring as compared to parent plants. Also refers to the process of pollination of female flowers.   shake n . unpurified [/i] hash [/i] derived from agitating cannabis leaves and bud fragments on a wood-framed screen to separate trichomes from plant material.   skuff n . slang term referring to non-purified hash derived from waste cannabis leaves by one of a variety of agitation methods.   skunk n . reference to various strains and hybrids of the cannabis plant that have higher than average odor and other characteristics.   slaked lime n . lime that is used to raise the pH of soil but is more caustic than dolomitic soil.   SoG abbr . Sea of Green. Technique of growing that encourages smaller, more numerous plants to be grown and harvested more frequently in a continuous growing operation. Anecdotal evidence suggests that yields can be higher to roughly equivalent to more traditional methods, but with lower risk of failure and more regular harvests. SoG is also a technique of producing multiple generations of plants quickly for breeding/hybridization purposes.   soil amendment n . (see amendment).   soil pasteurization n . sterilization process of soil that neutralizes harmful organisms without chemically altering the soil.   solarization n . process of eliminating harmful organisms in soil outdoors by covering the planting area with clear plastic to raise temperature and decrease access to fresh water.   spider mite n . very small spider-like insect that sucks juices from the leaves of many plants. It thrives in hot, dry weather and on dusty, drought-stressed plants. It causes stippled foliage, with a shiny yellow or silver coloration, and often covers the leaves with fine webbing. Infested plants are weakened and often die. Control with beneficial insects, insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, sulfur sprays, or traditional insecticides   sinsemilla n . female cannabis plants cultivated to maturity without pollination from male plants, thus not producing seeds. (From the Spanish "seedless" or "without seed.")   specular reflection n . redirection of incident light without diffusion at an angle that is equal to and in the same plane as the angle of incidence. The specular inserts included in some HID reflectors work on this principle.   steradian n . unit solid angle on the surface of a sphere equal to the square of the sphere's radius. Unit of measure used in calculating lighting intensity.   supercropping v . method of increasing yields by tying the top of the plant to its base. Encourages natural branching and multiple colas by de-emphasizing vertical growth. The original growth tip is often removed for cloning or disposal.   taproot n . 1. main root of a plant, which grows downward to a considerable depth, giving off lateral roots in succession. 2. the first root to emerge from a germinating seed.   THC abbr . tetrahydrocannabinol. The primary intoxicating agent derived from the cannabis plant.   tilth n . physical condition of a soil in respect to its fitness to support the growth of a specific type of plant.   trace element n . beneficial chemical element found in soil and plant tissue in very small amounts.   training v . 1. plant management technique involving the use of frames, rope, twine, or other mechanical means to control the shape of a plant. 2. To bend the main stem into a non traditional shape to avoid detection and to allow lower branches access to light. Esp. important for growers using the SoG growing method, supercropping, and those using fluorescent lights, which must be located very close to plants for optimal growth.   transformer n . component in the ballast [/b] that transforms electric current from one voltage to another   transpiration n . loss of water vapor from the surface of plant leaves.   transplant v . act or process of removing and resetting, as a plant; transplantation. 2. n. a plant that that has been transplanted. Plants with root systems that have outgrown their containers must be transplanted into new containers to avoid stress, which can lead to hermaphrodism or disease. Transplanting should be kept to a minimum to avoid plant shock.   triacontanol n . compound containing aliphatic alcohol, used to promote branching, enhance vegetative growth, and increase yields. Applied as a foliar spray.   trichomes n . small deposits of crystallized resin emitted from glands of cannabis leaves. Trichomes are separated from plant matter by the use of various screens and agitation methods and purified into hash.   U (for universal ) adj . industry code indicating a bulb that can be operated in any position: horizontal, vertical (base up) or any other.   ultraviolet light (UV) n . light with very short wavelengths outside the visible spectrum.   undergrowth n . branches and leaves found on the lowest portions of a plant. Excessive undergrowth is typically trimmed during flowering to promote air circulation and focus plant energy on the developing cola(s).   vegetative growth n . cycle when plant energy is focused primarily on increasing its biomass.   vermiculite n . a light, porous granules of mica expanded by heat. Was once common in horticulture but now most frequently used as building insulation.   vermiculture n . culture consisting of composting red worms (Eisenia fetida) acting as primary decomposers of vegetative waste and creating rich organic materials as a byproduct. Worm castings and worm tea are prized in organic gardening.   vascular a . referring to a plant's circulatory system, which consists of, or relates to, the specialized conducting tissues of plants--xylem and phloem--which circulate saps or resin.   viscid a . sticky.   watch owl n . artificial owl mounted on a post or tree limb to frighten pest rodents and birds from a garden.   water-farming v . (see hydroponics).   watt n . International System unit of power equal to one joule delivered through a conductive medium per second. (after Watt, James)   whitefly n . tiny, white, plant-******* insect that infests many plants, congregating on the undersides of leaves. Whiteflies are particularly troublesome in warm weather and in greenhouses. They cause plants to lose vigor and leaves to turn yellow. Control with beneficial insects, including Encarsia wasps. Horticultural oils, insecticidal soaps, yellow sticky traps, botanical sprays, and traditional insecticides are other control measures.   wood ash n . fertilizer containing potash.   worm tea n . liquid byproduct of vermiculture high in complex organic compounds and collected for use as plant nutrient supplement.   zinc n . trace element present in most soils.   Whew that took for ever to go through and edit so it was in a format easily shown for you guys. info from A-Z.   Source: Grower's Dictionary

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Spain Votes On Pot-growing To Pay Off Debt?

Spain votes on pot-growing to pay off debt?     RASQUERA, Spain (AP) — What about growing marijuana to pay off municipal debt? One Spanish village is putting the idea to a vote.   The referendum Tuesday in Rasquera, population 960, in the northeastern Catalonia region is a quirky, legally touchy illustration of Spain's deep financial woes.   The seven-member town council first approved the idea in March, but it ignited such controversy that the mayor agreed to put it to a referendum in the hamlet of mostly retirees. At least 75 percent must be in favor for the plan to go ahead. If that happens, a plot of land will be leased to an association of marijuana buffs in Barcelona who would grow the plants and pay Rasquera €1.3 million ($1.7 million). Some 40 jobs — growing, harvesting and packaging the pot — would allegedly be created.   The payment by the pot-smoking group ABCDA is about equal to the debt owed by this picturesque hamlet that sits at the foot of a mountain range and has a castle that dates back to the 12th century.   If the plan does not get enough votes, Mayor Bernat Pallisa says he will resign. Rasquera is not alone with its debt problems. Spain's economy crashed after a real estate bubble and many cities and towns are desperately trying to cope by cutting spending for health care, education and jobs. Spain has the highest unemployment in the 17-nation eurozone at nearly 23 percent — nearly 50 percent for young workers — and it's about to enter another recession.   Pallisa could not be reached for comment Tuesday. But Jose Maria Insausti, an adviser to the town council, said the mayor feels "this can be a good solution for the local economy and if somebody else has better idea, let them come forward." Under Spanish law, consumption in private of cannabis in small amounts is allowed. Growing it for sale, or advertising it or selling it are illegal. Officials with the government's National Drug Plan have said growing marijuana in large amounts as planned in Rasquera would be against the law, and have vowed to block any attempts.   Rasquera believes the initiative is legal, however, because ABCDA has pledged that the marijuana grown there will be for its members only — thus, for private consumption, albeit by a group with 5,000 members.   "That is the key," said Insausti. Results were expected late Tuesday.   Source:www.thcfarmer.com/community/threads/spain-votes-on-pot-growing-to-pay-off-debt.47290/   Source: Spain Votes On Pot-growing To Pay Off Debt?

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Do We Really Want All Patients Growing Medical Marijuana In Their Homes?

Los Angeles Considers Where Medical Marijuana Should Be Obtained         By Aaron Lachant   On Friday, the Public Safety Committee of the Los Angeles City Council considered where medical marijuana patients should obtain their medicine. In particular, they looked at two competing proposals that regulate medical marijuana in two very different ways. Under the first proposal, Councilmember José Huizar’s “gentle ban,” all medical marijuana storefronts are prohibited, but patients may associate in groups of three to grow marijuana in a “dwelling unit,” i.e. a home, condo, or apartment. Alternatively, under Councilmember Paul Koretz’s “limited immunity,” around one hundred medical marijuana collectives may continue operating so long as they comply with zoning restrictions and other conditions of operation. This piece looks at both proposals and the current challenges facing the City Council in regulating medical marijuana.   Council member Huizar’s gentle ban ignores the needs of the city’s residents. Spastically, the ban’s home cultivation mandate contradicts with what the City Attorney has argued for years, namely, that the city’s residents do not want medical marijuana in their neighborhoods. However, if enacted, the gentle ban would place marijuana deeper in neighborhoods than ever before. For example, under the gentle ban, every medical marijuana patient would be forced to cultivate marijuana in a residential dwelling, even if the patient lacked the knowledge or ability to cultivate marijuana safely. It seems to me that having amateurs cultivating with high wattage bulbs in residential areas will expose neighborhoods to an entirely new and different set of dangerous risks, including electrical fires.   In contrast, Councilmember Koretz’s proposal strikes a balance between the needs of the city’s residents and the medical marijuana patients. Under the Koretz proposal, the City can protect neighborhoods, while maintaining safe access for patients, by imposing conditions to ensure a limited number of collectives operate safely. These conditions, which will reduce the overall numbers, will move collectives away from neighborhoods and other sensitive uses, such that neighborhoods will no longer be troubled by the secondary effects of marijuana cultivation. The gentle ban, on the other hand, has no such zoning requirement and in fact allows marijuana cultivation in every residential dwelling unit citywide. Given that a single marijuana plant is worth thousands of dollars on the out-of-state black market, it begs the question as to whether such a commodity should be located in the homes on every residential street citywide.   From a policy standpoint, the gentle ban is quite contrary to how local governments have regulated similar nuisance land uses for many decades. For example, in the context of liquor stores, the law does not mandate that people distill their own alcohol for personal consumption. Likewise, the law does not force adults to associate in their own homes, in groups no bigger than three, in order to view exotic dancing or pornographic videos. In each of the cases, the local government was able to establish appropriate regulations and limit the quantity and locations of such establishments. Indeed, in hindsight, a gentle ban seems like an absurd means of regulation under any of those circumstances because responsible ordinances have amply resolved the harms associated with those uses.   The state of medical marijuana in the City of Los Angeles is quite complex and will not be fixed overnight. In the meantime though, the City Council should take proactive steps to reduce the number of illegal dispensaries while debating these two proposals. For example, the Office of Finance could stop issuing Business Tax Registration Certificates to newly formed medical marijuana collectives. Perhaps the act of issuing business licenses encourages people to establish medical marijuana collectives under the mistaken belief they are doing so legally. Maybe a few months after the stoppage, the City might begin to see the fruits of its multi-million dollar enforcement effort to shut down collectives. What good is shutting down one collective if the City issues business licenses to a dozen new ones?   Like it or not, medical marijuana is here to stay. The California Legislature has provided all California residents with the right to cultivate medical marijuana collectively and cooperatively, and the people of Los Angeles have embraced that right. However, as the largest city in the State of California, the Los Angeles City Council should be looking at new and innovative ways to regulate medical marijuana responsibly, not to shutter it out of existence. Until the City Council enacts a law that regulates medical marijuana appropriately, the state of medical marijuana in Los Angeles will not improve, and both the patients and residents will continue to suffer.   About Aaron C. Lachant   Aaron joined the firm as an associate in 2008 and he focuses his practice on representing providers in all aspects of healthcare law, including compliance with government-sponsored healthcare programs, Medicare/Medi-Cal recovery audits, administrative hearings, and civil litigation. He is a member of the State Bar of California Health Law Section and Health Care Compliance Association.   Aaron received his Juris Doctor, as well as a Certificate of Advanced Study in Health Services Management and Policy from Syracuse University in 2008. In law school, he was a member of the Health Law Society and participated in an international seminar on comparative health law and policy. During his third year, he completed an independent comparative research study on the Constitutional issues surrounding a patient’s right to die. Aaron earned his Bachelor of Arts in Communications and Rhetorical Studies from Syracuse University in 2005. Prior to joining the firm, Aaron clerked for the New York State Supreme Court 5th Judicial District.   Source: http://www.theweedbl...in-their-homes/   Source: Do We Really Want All Patients Growing Medical Marijuana In Their Homes?

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13 Things You May Not Know About Cannabis

13 Things You May Not Know About Cannabis   By Laurel Dewey   1. Smoking marijuana is actually the least effective way to benefit from the medicinal power of marijuana. Opt for liquid extracts, cannabis butters or medicated oils to truly gain the deepest use from this healing plant.   2. The term “marijuana” is actually a Mexican slang term that the U.S. government bestowed on the cannabis plant in the 1930’s. The true name of the plant is simply: cannabis.   3. In all of recorded history, nobody has ever died from consuming or smoking marijuana.   4. The two main medicinal species are Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica. Sativas affect the mind more and are more exhilarating while the Indicas work more on the body, providing physical relief and relaxation.   5. The term cannabinoids refers to the multiple compounds found within the marijuana plant. Cannabis has over sixty known cannabinoids, many of which have not been thoroughly studied. What people may not realize is that we were all born with cannabinoid receptors in our brains, liver, stomach and nerve tissue, making us human sponges to soak up the benefits of cannabis.   6. Marijuana liquid extracts were routinely given to babies in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s to effectively combat teething pain.   7. There are single strains of marijuana that can help you sleep, reduce pain, relieve muscle spasms and calm the mind. In other words, one marijuana strain can take the place of four different drugs, eliminating the multiple side effects of the pharmaceuticals.   8. Queen Victoria regularly depended upon cannabis indica extracts to ease her menstrual cramps.   9. Most people have heard about THC, the main psychoactive constituent in marijuana. However, there is another very important element in the plant called CBD that is non-psychoactive. Breeders are creating high CBD marijuana strains that have less than 1% of THC, making them non-psychoactive. High CBD marijuana has been shown to be excellent for stress, anxiety, inflammation and reducing the spread of cancerous tumors.   10. A 1974 conducted at the University of Virginia discovered that the cannabinoids in cannabis shrunk cancerous tumors and killed cancer cells, leaving the healthy cells alone.   11. Contrary to the propaganda that “pot kills brain cells,” research has shown that marijuana can actually protect brain cells, even when those cells have damaged by chronic alcohol abuse. In addition, marijuana has been shown to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease and protect victims of epilepsy, strokes and severe head trauma due to what appears to be neurogenesis—it’s ability to grow new nerves in the brain.   12. Marijuana seeds produce both male and female plants. However, the medicinal bud only is found on the female plants.   13. You don’t have to ingest marijuana to benefit from its healing abilities. Marijuana buds and leaves can be melted into oils and cocoa butters to make potent topical pain killing ointments that do not get you high.   Betty’s (Little Basement) Garden tells the story of one woman’s path to self-discovery about who she really is. What happens when you turn your back on everything that you believed? Follow Betty on her journey from an anti-cannabis staunch Republican to a pro-cannabis free spirit. For more information on the book, please visit the following website:   www.TheStoryPlant.com - The book will be released on June 12, 2012.   Source: 13 Things You May Not Know About Cannabis

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Newborns Test Positive For Marijuana

A surprising reason why some newborns test positive for marijuana   Some newborns are testing positive for marijuana exposure and the reason why could surprise you. Soap and hand wash products, including products commonly used in hospital nurseries, can interfere with urine drug tests of newborns and lead to false positives, according to a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.   The June issue of Clinical Biochemistry published the study, which was led by Catherine Hammett-Stabler, a professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at UNC Hospitals. Last year, UNC Hospitals increased use of a urine test to identify tetrahydrocannabinol-delta 9-carboxylic acid, or THC, the main chemical component of marijuana. The screening protocol had been revised to be consistent with the latest recommendations for newborn drug screening.   In the study, Hammett-Stabler said that clinical labs received a call in July 2011 from nurses in the newborn nursery asking about an increase in positive THC results from the drug screens. While urine samples tested positive, samples from the first bowel movement were not. Something was causing the positive test results and it wasn’t marijuana use. The mothers’ and newborns’ drug histories showed no potential agents that could alter a screening test.   Hammett-Stabler concluded that something was getting into the samples and interfering with the tests. After eliminating cotton balls, collection containers and possible dyes in the outer portion of diapers, the team focused on baby wash. A test of commercially available baby washes identified some of the chemicals and detergents that were causing the false positives. But the team does not know the mechanism by which these agents are causing the positive results.   “Structurally, these things don’t look like marijuana metabolites, but clearly they are being recognized by the antibodies used in the immunoassay,” Hammett-Stabler said in a statement. “And when testing those reagents in increasing concentrations we did see a positive response, aleit really low, just over the point of positive.” Dr. Carl Seashore, associate professor of pediatrics at UNC and a co-author of the study, said the findings underscore the need to confirm positive marijuana test results with more sophisticated methods before child social services are contacted for what may be a false allegation.   “We wrote this paper to inform care providers and laboratory medicine people in hospitals that this issue is out there and that positive urine screens for THC need to be confirmed,” he said.   http://medcitynews.c...-for-marijuana/ Source: Newborns Test Positive For Marijuana

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Marijuana Law Just Creates Criminals

Marijuana law just creates criminals (cnn)   -- More than 50,000 people in 2011 were arrested in New York City for possessing small amounts of marijuana -- the majority of whom were black and Latino -- at a considerable judicial and financial cost.   New York City spends about $75 million every year     on arresting people for recreational marijuana possession.       But what many people don't know is that the state decriminalized this offense more than 30 years ago, making private possession of less than 25 grams of marijuana a violation punishable by a $100 fine. Possession of the same amount in public view remains a criminal misdemeanor.   Despite this change in law, arrests for small quantities of marijuana over the last decade have skyrocketed, with more than 400,000 people arrested and unceremoniously run through the criminal justice system. Marijuana possession is now the No. 1 arrest category in New York.   Why is this happening?   Each year, hundreds of thousands of people in New York are stopped, questioned, frisked and searched, often without justification, under the "stop and frisk" policy. The vast majority of these people live in communities of color, and almost 90% are immediately released without arrest or even a summons.   Often, however, the police approach young people and instruct them to empty their pockets immediately and show the officers anything they have. People who have a small quantity of marijuana in their pockets take it out and hold it up. The marijuana is now in public view. Thousands of people are then arrested and charged with misdemeanor possession, punishable by up to three months in jail and a $500 fine.   Given the change of law in 1977, had the marijuana remained in the person's pocket, possession would not have been a crime at all. But in complying with a police officer's request, otherwise noncriminal behavior is instantly transformed into an arrest and unceremonious journey through the criminal justice system.   This is fundamentally unfair. Many view it as classic entrapment.   A majority of these arrests happen only in certain neighborhoods. Indeed, compounding the injustice is the fact that 85% of the people arrested are black and Latino. Yet studies consistently show that younger and affluent whites use marijuana in equal if not greater numbers.   The consequences of an arrest are severe, especially for young people of color who are already disproportionately subjected to criminal justice system intervention and incarceration. An arrest creates serious barriers to going to college or getting a job, and that person's future may begin to spiral downward. The damage to police and community relations cannot be overstated.   Another serious problem is that these needless and inappropriate arrests detract from arresting and prosecuting serious criminals. Millions of dollars in law enforcement resources are wasted. Thousands of lives are damaged with the contamination of having a criminal record.   But New York is prepared to take a significant step forward to solve this problem. With the leadership of Gov. Andrew Cuomo, we are on the brink of finishing the job that the state Legislature started in 1977. We want to reduce the classification of possession of small quantities of marijuana in plain view from a misdemeanor to a violation.   Justice demands this change. The possession of small quantities of marijuana is either a crime or it is not. But it cannot be criminal activity for one group of people and socially acceptable behavior for another when the dividing line is race.   The connected and powerful -- including many in high political office -- have frequently admitted to smoking marijuana when they were young. We didn't unmercifully penalize them. We should stop needlessly criminalizing tens of thousands of our young people for doing the same thing.     Source: Marijuana Law Just Creates Criminals

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