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Marijuana for a Concussion


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I was reading an article recently about a cannabis pill being developed for concussions but I can't seem to find any information on it now. It makes sense to me because of the tendency for marijuana to reduce inflammation but I was just curious if anyone else had heard of this? It seems like it would be great for the NFL but I'm not sure if its actual cannabis extract in pill form or a synthesized marijuana (I don't trust any synthetic marijuana). 

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Post-Concussion Syndrome – Medical Marijuana Research Overview

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Post-concussion syndrome is symptoms that can linger following a concussion. Studies have shown cannabis reduces damage caused from brain injuries and can help patients manage the symptoms of the syndrome.


Overview of Post-Concussion Syndrome

Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a variety of symptoms, including headaches and dizziness, that continue for weeks and sometimes months following a concussion. A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that typically occurs after a direct blow to the head. Not all concussions lead to post-concussion syndrome, which doesn’t seem to be correlated to the severity of the initial blow.

What causes post-concussion symptoms to develop following certain concussions is yet to be identified. According to Mayo Clinic, some experts believe the symptoms come from structural damage to the brain or the disruption of neurotransmitter systems. Others believe that psychological factors may contribute.

In addition to headaches and dizziness, post-concussion syndrome commonly causes fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of concentration and memory, and noise and light sensitivity.

Typically, symptoms associated with PCS develop within the first seven to 10 days after a concussion and eventually alleviate within a three-month period. In some cases, however, the symptoms can persist for a year or longer.

Treatment for post-concussion syndrome depends on individual symptoms. Headaches are commonly treated with medications. Time, however, is often the best therapy for treating memory and thinking problems.

Findings: Effects of Cannabis on Post-Concussion Syndrome

While research on cannabis’ direct effect on post-concussion syndrome is lacking, preclinical findings have shown that cannabis offers therapeutic benefits following brain injuries. Studies have shown that the cannabinoids found in cannabis, most specifically cannabidiol (CBD), activate the body’s cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), though evidence also suggests that the neuroprotective effects from CBD come from the cannabinoid’s activation of the 5-hydroxytriptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor (Mishima, et al., 2005). When these receptors are activated, they provide protection against neural damage following acute and chronic brain damage (Lopez-Rodriguez, et al., 2013). For example, in one study, the administration of cannabinoids following a traumatic brain injury decreased brain swelling and inflammation and was shown to improve recovery (Shohami, et al., 2011). Another showed that CBD alone provided neuroprotection and limited brain cell death in newborn mice following a hypoxic-ischemic event (Castillo, et al., 2010). Others have showed that cannabinoids, through the activation of the endocannabinoid system, prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium accumulation, activation of cell death pathways, microglia activation, neurovascular reactivity and circulating leukocytes following a brain injury. Researchers concluded that modulating the endocannabinoid system is an effective way to provide neuroprotection and prevent and reduce brain injury (Fernandez-Lopez, Lizasoain, Moro & Orgado, 2013).

Addition research has shown that cannabis’ cannabinoids provide brain and neuroprotection caused by disorders. One found that CBD reduces the oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s hallmark protein (β-amyloid), thus limiting nerve damage caused by the disorder and improving cell viability (Harvey, et al., 2012). An animal study showed that CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments were effective at delaying and limiting neural damage caused by Huntington’s disease (Sagredo, et al., 2011). Another found that CBD, in addition to providing neuroprotective effects and reducing long-term brain injury, also helped restore neurobehavioral function following a hypoxia-ischemia event (Pazos, et al., 2012).

Studies have also shown that cannabis can help post-concussion syndrome patients manage the symptoms associated with the disorder. CBD can lower stress, help combat depression, improve sleep and reduce pain (Abush & Akirav, 2013) (Campos, et al., 2012) (Chagas, et al., 2013) (Russo, Guy & Robson, 2007) (Baron, 2015).

States That Have Approved Medical Marijuana for Post-Concussion Syndrome

Currently, only the state of Illinois has approved medical marijuana for the treatment of post-concussion syndrome. However, in Washington D.C., any condition can be approved for medical marijuana as long as a DC-licensed physician recommends the treatment. In addition, a number of other states will consider allowing medical marijuana to be used for the treatment of post-concussion syndrome with the recommendation from a physician. These states include: California (any debilitating illness where the medical use of marijuana has been recommended by a physician), Connecticut (other medical conditions may be approved by the Department of Consumer Protection), Massachusetts (other conditions as determined in writing by a qualifying patient’s physician), Nevada (other conditions subject to approval), Oregon (other conditions subject to approval), Rhode Island (other conditions subject to approval), and Washington (any “terminal or debilitating condition”).

Also, fourteen states have approved medical marijuana specifically to treat “chronic pain,” which can develop from post-concussion syndrome. These states include: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. The states of Nevada, New Hampshire, Ohio and Vermont allow medical marijuana to treat “severe pain.” The states of Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Washington have approved cannabis for the treatment of “intractable pain.”

Recent Studies on Cannabis’ Effect on Post-Concussion Syndrome

CBD shown to reduce neural damage and improve recovery following a brain injury. Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659086)
THC and CBD treatments found to improve pain and sleep. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17712817)
References

Abush, H., & Akirav, I. (2013). Cannabinoids Ameliorate Impairments Induced by Chronic Stress to Synaptic Plasticity and Short-Term Memory. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(8), 1521–1534.

Baron, E.P. (2015, June). Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Long Strange Trip It’s Been… Headache, 55(6), 885-916.

Campos, A. C., Moreira, F. A., Gomes, F. V., Del Bel, E. A., & Guimarães, F. S. (2012). Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1607), 3364–3378.

Castillo, A., Tolon, M.R., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., Romero, J., and Martinez-Orgado, J. (2010). The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors. Neurobiology of Disease, 37, 434-440.

Chagas, M.H., Crippa, J.A., Zuardi, A.W., Hallak, J.E., Machado-de-Sousa, J.P., Hirotsu, C., Maia, L., Tufik, S., and Anderson, M.L. (2013, March). Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(3), 312-6.

Fernández-López, D., Lizasoain, I., Moro, M. Á., & Martínez-Orgado, J. (2013). Cannabinoids: Well-Suited Candidates for the Treatment of Perinatal Brain Injury. Brain Sciences, 3(3), 1043–1059.

Harvey, B.S., Ohlsson, K.S., Mååg, J.L.V., Musgrave, I.F., and Smid, S.D. (2012, January). Contrasting protective effects of cannabinoids against oxidative stress and amyloid-β evoked neurotoxicity in vitro. NeuroToxicology, 33(1), 138-146.

Mishima, K., Hayakawa, K., Abe, K., Ikeda, T., Egashira, N., Iwasaki, K., and Fujiwara, M. (2005). Cannabidiol Prevents Cerebral Infarction Via a Serotonergic 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A Receptor–Dependent Mechanism. Stroke, 36, 1071-1076.

Lopez-Rodriguez, A.B., Siopi, E., Finn, D.P., Marchand-Leroux, C., Garcia-Segura, L.M., Jafarian-Tehrani, M.H., and Viveros, M.P. (2013). CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists prevent minocycline-induced neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury in mice. Cerebral Cortex. Retrieved from http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/19/cercor.bht202.abstract.

Pazos, M.R., Cinquina, V., Gomez, A., Layunta, R., Santos, M., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., and Martinez-Orgado, J. (2012, October). Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function. Neuropharmacology, 63(5), 776-783.

Post-concussion syndrome. (2014, August 19). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-concussion-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20032705.

Russo, E.B., Guy, G.W., and Robson, P.J. (2007, August). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 4(8), 1729-43.

Sagredo, O., Pazos, M.R., Satta, V., Ramos, J.A., Pertwee, R.G., and Fernandez-Ruiz, J. (2011, September). Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s disease. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 89(9), 1509-18.

Shohami, E., Cohen-Yeshurun, A., Magid, L., Algali, M., & Mechoulam, R. (2011). Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7), 1402–1410.
September 12, 2016 by Harvest Bloom
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Thanks for sharing this report! I had a concussion from a car accident when I was younger and experienced light PCS (I definitely got off the easiest - my sister's hip was broken). It's interesting that CBD oil could have likely eased some of the effects for me. I'm not sure if it would have been classed as chronic pain though. I really wish restrictions would be lifted on CBD oil since it's proven to be non-psychoactive. 

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Not that there's anything wrong with THC. It also has been proven to be useful in treating head injuries, first with mice, and then also with humans. 

Being 'psychoactive' doesn't make it so we should be restricted from it either. That makes no sense at all given all the psychoactive plants and things that are not illegal. 

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22 hours ago, Restorium2 said:

Not that there's anything wrong with THC. It also has been proven to be useful in treating head injuries, first with mice, and then also with humans. 

Being 'psychoactive' doesn't make it so we should be restricted from it either. That makes no sense at all given all the psychoactive plants and things that are not illegal. 

I agree completely. There's so much information out there where specific ailments respond better to THC. I'm just speaking to the protests of prohibitionists who have outdated, archaic views. Sometimes, it's easier to sell them on something that isn't psychoactive so I was actually a bit surprised when the DEA put their foot down about CBD. So ridiculous. 

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  • 7 months later...
  • 1 year later...
11 hours ago, zeebudz said:

^ "kevinjoseph" must be a bot, constantly replying to very old posts with unintelligible irrelevancies. 

English isn't his first language so it cuts and pastes only.  Making a footprint on this site for future uses. Something going on behind the scenes. 

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